Micah 2:13

“The breaker is come up before them.”

— Micah 2:13

Inasmuch as Jesus has gone before us, things remain not as they would have been had he never passed that way. He has conquered every foe that obstructed the way. Cheer up now thou faint-hearted warrior. Not only has Christ travelled the road, but he has slain thine enemies. Dost thou dread sin? He has nailed it to his cross. Dost thou fear death? He has been the death of Death. Art thou afraid of hell? He has barred it against the advent of any of his children; they shall never see the gulf of perdition. Whatever foes may be before the Christian, they are all overcome. There are lions, but their teeth are broken; there are serpents, but their fangs are extracted; there are rivers, but they are bridged or fordable; there are flames, but we wear that matchless garment which renders us invulnerable to fire. The sword that has been forged against us is already blunted; the instruments of war which the enemy is preparing have already lost their point. God has taken away in the person of Christ all the power that anything can have to hurt us.

Well then, the army may safely march on, and you may go joyously along your journey, for all your enemies are conquered beforehand. What shall you do but march on to take the prey? They are beaten, they are vanquished; all you have to do is to divide the spoil. You shall, it is true, often engage in combat; but your fight shall be with a vanquished foe. His head is broken; he may attempt to injure you, but his strength shall not be sufficient for his malicious design. Your victory shall be easy, and your treasure shall be beyond all count.

“Proclaim aloud the Saviour’s fame,

Who bears the Breaker’s wond’rous name;

Sweet name; and it becomes him well,

Who breaks down earth, sin, death, and hell.”

Introduction to Hebrews

Introduction to the Book of Hebrews

The Book of Hebrews

The writer of this letter does not identify himself, but he was obviously well known to the original recipients. Though for some 1,200 years (from c. a.d. 400 to 1600) the book was commonly called “The Epistle of Paul to the Hebrews,” there was no agreement in the earliest centuries regarding its authorship. Since the Reformation it has been widely recognized that Paul could not have been the writer. There is no disharmony between the teaching of Hebrews and that of Paul’s letters, but the specific emphases and writing styles are markedly different. Contrary to Paul’s usual practice, the author of Hebrews nowhere identifies himself in the letter- except to indicate that he was a man (see note on 11:32). Moreover, the statement “This salvation, which was first announced by the Lord, was confirmed to us by those who heard him” (2:3), indicates that the author had neither been with Jesus during his earthly ministry nor received special revelation directly from the risen Lord, as had Paul (Gal 1:11-12).

The earliest suggestion of authorship is found in Tertullian’s De Pudicitia, 20 (c. 200), in which he quotes from “an epistle to the Hebrews under the name of Barnabas.” From the letter itself it is clear that the writer must have had authority in the apostolic church and was an intellectual Hebrew Christian well versed in the OT. Barnabas meets these requirements. He was a Jew of the priestly tribe of Levi (Ac 4:36) who became a close friend of Paul after the latter’s conversion. Under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, the church at Antioch commissioned Barnabas and Paul for the work of evangelism and sent them off on the first missionary journey (Ac 13:1-4).

The other leading candidate for authorship is Apollos, whose name was first suggested by Martin Luther and who is favored by many interpreters today. Apollos, an Alexandrian by birth, was also a Jewish Christian with notable intellectual and oratorical abilities. Luke tells us that “he was a learned man, with a thorough knowledge of the Scriptures” (Ac 18:24). We also know that Apollos was associated with Paul in the early years of the church in Corinth (1Co 1:12; 3:4-6,22).

One thing is evident: The author was a master of the Greek language of his day, and he was thoroughly acquainted with the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT (the Septuagint), which he regularly quotes.

Hebrews must have been written before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in a.d. 70 because: (1) If it had been written after this date, the author surely would have mentioned the temple’s destruction and the end of the Jewish sacrificial system; and (2) the author consistently uses the Greek present tense when speaking of the temple and the priestly activities connected with it (see 5:1-3; 7:23,27; 8:3-5; 9:6-9,13,25; 10:1,3-4,8,11; 13:10-11).

The letter was addressed primarily to Jewish converts who were familiar with the OT and who were being tempted to revert to Judaism or to Judaize the gospel (cf. Gal 2:14). Some have suggested that these professing Jewish Christians were thinking of merging with a Jewish sect, such as the one at Qumran near the Dead Sea. It has also been suggested that the recipients were from the “large number of priests who became obedient to the faith” (Ac 6:7).

The theme of Hebrews is the absolute supremacy and sufficiency of Jesus Christ as revealer and as mediator of God’s grace. The prologue (1:1-4) presents Christ as God’s full and final revelation, far surpassing the revelation given in the OT. The prophecies and promises of the OT are fulfilled in the “new covenant” (or “new testament” ), of which Christ is the mediator. From the OT itself, Christ is shown to be superior to the ancient prophets, to angels, to Moses (the mediator of the former covenant) and to Aaron and the priestly succession descended from him. Hebrews could be called “the book of better things” since the two Greek words for “better” and “superior” occur 15 times in the letter. A striking feature of this presentation of the gospel is the unique manner in which the author employs expositions of eight specific passages of the OT Scriptures:

2:5-9: Exposition of Ps 8:4-6

3:7- 4:13: Exposition of Ps 95:7-11

4:14- 7:28: Exposition of Ps 110:4

8:1- 10:18: Exposition of Jer 31:31-34

10:1-10: Exposition of Ps 40:6-8

10:32- 12:3: Exposition of Hab 2:3-4

12:4-13: Exposition of Pr 3:11-12

12:18-24: Exposition of Ex 19:10-23

Practical applications of this theme are given throughout the book. The readers are told that there can be no turning back to or continuation in the old Jewish system, which has been superseded by the unique priesthood of Christ. God’s people must now look only to him, whose atoning death, resurrection and ascension have opened the way into the true, heavenly sanctuary of God’s presence. To “ignore such a great salvation” (2:3) or to give up the pursuit of holiness (12:10,14) is to face the anger of the “living God” (10:31). Five times the author weaves into his presentation of the gospel stern warnings (see note on 2:1-4) and reminds his readers of the divine judgment that came on the rebellious generation of Israelites in the desert.

Literary Form
Hebrews is commonly referred to as a letter, though it does not have the typical form of a letter. It ends like a letter (13:22-25) but begins more like an essay or sermon (1:1-4). The author does not identify himself or those addressed, which letter writers normally did. And he offers no manner of greeting, such as is usually found at the beginning of ancient letters. Rather, he begins with a magnificent statement about Jesus Christ. He calls his work a “word of exhortation” (13:22), the conventional designation given a sermon in a synagogue service (see Ac 13:15, where “message of encouragement” translates the same Greek words as “word of exhortation” ). Like a sermon, Hebrews is full of encouragement, exhortations and stern warnings. It is likely that the author used sermonic materials and sent them out in a modified letter form.


Prologue: The Superiority of God’s New Revelation (1:1-4)

The Superiority of Christ to Leading Figures under the Old Covenant (1:5- 7:28)

Christ Is Superior to the Angels (1:5- 2:18)

Scriptural proof of his superiority (1:5-14)

Exhortation not to ignore the revelation of God in his Son (2:1-4)

Jesus was made a little lower than the angels (2:5-9)

Having been made like us, Jesus was enabled to save us (2:10-18)

Christ Is Superior to Moses (3:1- 4:13)

Demonstration of Christ’s superiority (3:1-6)

Exhortation to enter salvation-rest (3:7- 4:13)

Christ Is Superior to the Aaronic Priests (4:14- 7:28)

Jesus is the great high priest (4:14-16)

Qualifications of a priest (5:1-10)

Exhortation to press on toward maturity (5:11- 6:12)

The certainty of God’s promise (6:13-20)

Christ’s superior priestly order (ch. 7)

The Superior Sacrificial Work of Our High Priest (8:1- 10:18)

A New Sanctuary and a New Covenant (ch. 8)

The Old Sanctuary (9:1-10)

The Better Sacrifice (9:11- 10:18)

A Call to Follow Jesus Faithfully and with Perseverance (10:19- 12:29)

Having Confidence to Enter the Sanctuary (10:19-25)

A Warning against Persistence in Sin (10:26-31)

C. Persevering in Faith under Pressure (10:32- 12:3)

As in the past, so in the future (10:32-39)

Faith and its many outstanding examples (ch. 11)

Jesus, the supreme example (12:1-3)

Encouragement to Persevere in the Face of Hardship (12:4-13)

Exhortation to Holy Living (12:14-17)

Crowning Motivation and Warning (12:18-29)

Conclusion (ch. 13)

Rules for Christian Living (13:1-17)

Request for Prayer (13:18-19)

Benediction (13:20-21)

Personal Remarks (13:22-23)

Greetings and Final Benediction (13:24-25)

Introduction to 2 Corinthians

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of 2 Corinthians

Paul is the author of this letter (see 1:1; 10:1). It is stamped with his style and contains more autobiographical material than any of his other writings.

The available evidence indicates that the year a.d. 55 is a reasonable estimate for the writing of this letter. From 1Co 16:5-8 it may be concluded that 1 Corinthians was written from Ephesus before Pentecost (in the late spring) and that 2 Corinthians may have been written later that same year before the onset of winter. 2Co 2:13; 7:5 indicate that it was probably written from Macedonia (see chart, p. 2261).

The opening greeting of the letter states that it was addressed to the church in Corinth and to Christians throughout Achaia (the Roman province comprising all of Greece south of Macedonia; see map, 2288).

It seems that Paul wrote as many as four letters to the church at Corinth: (1) the letter referred to in 1Co 5:9 (see note there); (2) 1 Corinthians; (3) the ?severe? letter (see 2Co 2:3-4; see also below); (4) 2 Corinthians. After writing 1 Corinthians Paul continued his ministry at Ephesus until he heard that his letter had not completely accomplished its purpose. A group of men had come to Corinth who presented themselves as apostles. They were false teachers who were challenging, among other things, Paul?s personal integrity and his authority as an apostle (see 11:4; 12:11).

In the face of this serious situation, Paul decided to make a quick trip to Corinth (12:4; 13:1-2) to see whether he could remedy the situation. The visit turned out to be painful and did not accomplish its purpose. So when Paul returned to Ephesus, he wrote the Corinthians a severe letter ?out of great distress and anguish of heart and with many tears? (2:4), probably sending it by Titus (12:8). Some identify this letter with 2Co 10-13. Others think it has been lost.

After writing the severe letter, Paul had second thoughts. He was deeply concerned about how the Corinthians might react to it. So after the riot caused by Demetrius and his fellow silversmiths (see Ac 19:23-41), he left Ephesus and set out for Macedonia by way of Troas. He expected to meet Titus in Troas to get news of the effect of his severe letter on the Corinthian church, but Titus was not there (see 2Co 2:12-13). Still deeply concerned and despite the fact that the Lord had opened up an opportunity to preach the gospel at Troas, Paul said good-by to the believers there and moved on to Macedonia, where he met Titus. To his relief, the news from the Corinthian church was basically good. The severe letter had brought its intended results (7:5-16). The encouraging report of Titus of the improved situation at Corinth is the immediate occasion of the writing of 2 Corinthians.

How, then, does one explain the harsh tone of chs. 10-13, which is so different from the rest of the letter? Some think that when Paul had just completed writing the first nine chapters, a report came to him that a strong and vocal minority was still causing trouble at Corinth. So before sending off the letter he added the last four chapters to address this troublemaking group. Others hold that chs. 10-13 were written some time after Paul had sent the first nine chapters and that they constitute a separate letter. There is, however, no manuscript evidence that warrants splitting 2 Corinthians into two parts.

Because of the occasion that prompted this letter, Paul had a number of purposes in mind:

To express the comfort and joy Paul felt because the Corinthians had responded favorably to his painful letter (1:3-4; 7:8-9,12-13).

To let them know about the trouble he went through in the province of Asia (1:8-11).

To explain why he had changed his travel plans (1:12-2:4).

To ask them to forgive the offending party (2:5-11).

To warn them not to be ?yoked together with unbelievers? (6:14-7:1).

To explain to them the true nature (its joys, sufferings and rewards) and high calling of Christian ministry. This is the so-
called great digression, but it turns out to be in some ways the most important section of the letter (2:14-7:4; see note on 2:14).

To teach the Corinthians about the grace of giving and to make sure that they complete the collection for the poor Christians at Jerusalem (chs. 8-9).

To deal with the minority opposition in the church (chs. 10-13).

To prepare the Corinthians for his upcoming visit (12:14; 13:1-3,10).

The structure of the letter relates primarily to Paul?s impending third visit to Corinth. The letter falls naturally into three sections:

Paul explains the reason for the changes in his itinerary (chs. 1-7).
Paul encourages the Corinthians to complete their collection in preparation for his arrival (chs. 8-9).
Paul stresses the certainty of his coming, his authenticity as an apostle and his readiness to exercise discipline if necessary (chs. 10-13).

Some have questioned the unity of this letter (see above), but it forms a coherent whole, as the structure above shows. Tradition has been unanimous in affirming its unity (the early church fathers, e.g., knew the letter only in its present form). Furthermore, none of the early Greek manuscripts breaks up the book.

Apologetic: Paul?s Explanation of His Conduct and Apostolic Ministry (chs. 1-7)

Greetings (1:1-2)

Thanksgiving for Divine Comfort in Affliction (1:3-11)

The Integrity of Paul?s Motives and Conduct (1:12-2:4)

Forgiving the Offending Party at Corinth (2:5-11)

God?s Direction in Ministry (2:12-17)

The Corinthian Believers-a Letter from Christ (3:1-11)

Seeing the Glory of God with Unveiled Faces (3:12-4:6)

Treasure in Clay Jars (4:7-16a)

The Prospect of Death and What It Means for the Christian (4:16b-5:10)

The Ministry of Reconciliation (5:11-6:10)

A Spiritual Father?s Appeal to His Children (6:11-7:4)

The Meeting with Titus (7:5-16)

Hortatory: The Collection for the Christians at Jerusalem (chs. 8-9)

Generosity Encouraged (8:1-15)

Titus and His Companions Sent to Corinth (8:16-9:5)

Results of Generous Giving (9:6-15)

Polemical: Paul?s Vindication of His Apostolic Authority (chs. 10-13)

Paul?s Defense of His Apostolic Authority and the Area of His Mission (ch. 10)

Paul Forced into Foolish Boasting (chs. 11-12)

Final Warnings (13:1-10)

Conclusion, Final Greetings and Benediction (13:11-14)

Introduction to 1 Corinthians

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of 1 Corinthians

Corinth in the Time of Paul
The city of Corinth, perched like a one-eyed Titan astride the narrow isthmus connecting the Greek mainland with the Peloponnese, was one of the dominant commercial centers of the Mediterranean world as early as the eighth century b.c.

No city in Greece was more favorably situated for land and sea trade. With a high, strong citadel at its back, it lay between the Saronic Gulf and the Ionian Sea, with ports at Lechaion and Cenchrea. A diolkos, or stone road for the overland transport of ships, linked the two seas. Crowning the Acrocorinth was the temple of Aphrodite, served, according to Strabo, by more than 1,000 pagan priestess-prostitutes.

By the time the gospel reached Corinth in the spring of a.d. 52, the city had a proud history of leadership in the Achaian League, and a spirit of revived Hellenism under Roman domination after 44 b.c. following the destruction of the city by Mummius in 146 b.c.

Paul’s lengthy stay in Corinth brought him directly in contact with the major monuments of the agora, many of which still survive. The fountain-house of the spring Peirene, the temple of Apollo, the macellum or meat market (1Co 10:25) and the theater, the bema (Ac 18:12), and the unimpressive synagogue all played a part in the experience of the apostle. An inscription from the theater names the city official Erastus, probably the friend of Paul mentioned in Ro 16:23 (see note there).

Author and Date
Paul is acknowledged as the author both by the letter itself (1:1-2; 16:21) and by the early church fathers. His authorship was attested by Clement of Rome as early as a.d. 96, and today practically all NT interpreters concur. The letter was written c. 55 (see chart, p. 2261) toward the close of Paul’s three-year residency in Ephesus (see 16:5-9; Ac 20:31). It is clear from his reference to staying at Ephesus until Pentecost (16:8) that he intended to remain there somewhat less than a year when he wrote 1 Corinthians.

The City of Corinth
Corinth was a thriving city; it was at the time the chief city of Greece both commercially and politically. See map and diagram, p. 2355.

Its commerce. Located just off the Corinthian isthmus (see map, p. 2288), it was a crossroads for travelers and traders. It had two harbors: (1) Cenchrea, six miles to the east on the Saronic Gulf, and (2) Lechaion, a mile and a half to the north on the Corinthian Gulf. Goods were transported across the isthmus on the Diolkos, a stone road by which smaller ships could be hauled fully loaded across the isthmus, and by which cargoes of larger ships could be transported by wagons from one side to the other. Trade flowed through the city from Italy and Spain to the west and from Asia Minor, Phoenicia and Egypt to the east.

Its culture. Although Corinth was not a university town like Athens, it was characterized nevertheless by typical Greek culture. Its people were interested in Greek philosophy and placed a high premium on wisdom.
Its religion. Corinth contained at least 12 temples. Whether they were all in use during Paul’s time is not known for certain. One of the most infamous was the temple dedicated to Aphrodite, the goddess of love, whose worshipers practiced religious prostitution. About a fourth of a mile north of the theater stood the temple of Asclepius, the god of healing, and in the middle of the city the sixth-century b.c. temple of Apollo was located. In addition, the Jews had established a synagogue; the inscribed lintel of it has been found and placed in the museum at old Corinth.
Its immorality. Like any large commercial city, Corinth was a center for open and unbridled immorality. The worship of Aphrodite fostered prostitution in the name of religion. At one time 1,000 sacred (priestess) prostitutes served her temple. So widely known did the immorality of Corinth become that the Greek verb “to Corinthianize” came to mean “to practice sexual immorality.” In a setting like this it is no wonder that the Corinthian church was plagued with numerous problems.

Occasion and Purpose
Paul had received information from several sources concerning the conditions existing in the church at Corinth. Some members of the household of Chloe had informed him of the factions that had developed in the church (1:11). There were three individuals- Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus- who had come to Paul in Ephesus to make some contribution to his ministry (16:17), but whether these were the ones from Chloe’s household we do not know.

Some of those who had come had brought disturbing information concerning moral irregularities in the church (chs. 5-6). Immorality had plagued the Corinthian assembly almost from the beginning. From 5:9-10 it is apparent that Paul had written previously concerning moral laxness. He had urged believers “not to associate with sexually immoral people” (5:9). Because of misunderstanding he now finds it necessary to clarify his instruction (5:10-11) and to urge immediate and drastic action (5:3-5,13).

Other Corinthian visitors had brought a letter from the church that requested counsel on several subjects (see 7:1 and note; cf. 8:1; 12:1; 16:1).

It is clear that, although the church was gifted (see 1:4-7), it was immature and unspiritual (3:1-4). Paul’s purposes for writing were: (1) to instruct and restore the church in its areas of weakness, correcting erroneous practices such as divisions (1:10- 4:21), immorality (ch. 5; 6:12-20), litigation in pagan courts (6:1-8) and abuse of the Lord’s Supper (11:17-34); (2) to correct false teaching concerning the resurrection (ch. 15); and (3) to answer questions addressed to Paul in the letter that had been brought to him (see previous paragraph).

The letter revolves around the theme of problems in Christian conduct in the church. It thus has to do with progressive sanctification, the continuing development of a holy character. Obviously Paul was personally concerned with the Corinthians’ problems, revealing a true pastor’s (shepherd’s) heart.

This letter continues to be timely for the church today, both to instruct and to inspire. Christians are still powerfully influenced by their cultural environment, and most of the questions and problems that confronted the church at Corinth are still very much with us- problems like immaturity, instability, divisions, jealousy and envy, lawsuits, marital difficulties, sexual immorality and misuse of spiritual gifts. Yet in spite of this concentration on problems, Paul’s letter contains some of the most familiar and beloved chapters in the entire Bible- e.g., ch. 13 (on love) and ch. 15 (on resurrection).


Introduction (1:1-9)

Divisions in the Church (1:10- 4:21)

The Fact of the Divisions (1:10-17)

The Causes of the Divisions (1:18- 4:13)

A wrong conception of the Christian message (1:18- 3:4)

A wrong conception of Christian ministry and ministers (3:5- 4:5)

A wrong conception of the Christian (4:6-13)

The Exhortation to End the Divisions (4:14-21)

Moral and Ethical Disorders in the Life of the Church (chs. 5-6)

Laxity in Church Discipline (ch. 5)

Lawsuits before Non-Christian Judges (6:1-11)

Sexual Immorality (6:12-20)

Instruction on Marriage (ch. 7)

General Principles (7:1-7)

The Problems of the Married (7:8-24)

The Problems of the Unmarried (7:25-40)

Instruction on Questionable Practices (8:1- 11:1)

The Principles Involved (ch. 8)

The Principles Illustrated (ch. 9)

A Warning from the History of Israel (10:1-22)

The Principles Applied (10:23- 11:1)

Instruction on Public Worship (11:2- 14:40)

Propriety in Worship (11:2-16)

The Lord’s Supper (11:17-34)

Spiritual Gifts (chs. 12-14)

The test of the gifts (12:1-3)

The unity of the gifts (12:4-11)

The diversity of the gifts (12:12-31a)

The necessity of exercising the gifts in love (12:31b- 13:13)

The superiority of prophecy over tongues (14:1-25)

Rules governing public worship (14:26-40)

Instruction on the Resurrection (ch. 15)

The Certainty of the Resurrection (15:1-34)

The Consideration of Certain Objections (15:35-57)

The Concluding Appeal (15:58)

Conclusion: Practical and Personal Matters (ch. 16)

Introduction to Romans

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of Romans

The writer of this letter was the apostle Paul (see 1:1 and note). No voice from the early church was ever raised against his authorship. The letter contains a number of historical references that agree with known facts of Paul’s life. The doctrinal content of the book is typical of Paul, which is evident from a comparison with other letters he wrote.

Date and Place of Writing
The book was probably written in the early spring of a.d. 57 (see chart, p. 2261). Very likely Paul was on his third missionary journey, ready to return to Jerusalem with the offering from the mission churches for poverty-stricken believers in Jerusalem (see 15:25-27 and notes). In 15:26 it is suggested that Paul had already received contributions from the churches of Macedonia and Achaia, so he either was at Corinth or had already been there. Since he had not yet been at Corinth (on his third missionary journey) when he wrote 1 Corinthians (cf. 1Co 16:1-4) and the collection issue had still not been resolved when he wrote 2 Corinthians (2Co 8-9), the writing of Romans must follow that of 1,2 Corinthians (dated c. 55).

The most likely place of writing is either Corinth or Cenchrea (about six miles away) because of references to Phoebe of Cenchrea (see 16:1 and note) and to Gaius, Paul’s host (see 16:23 and note), who was probably a Corinthian (see 1Co 1:14). Erastus (see 16:23 and note) may also have been a Corinthian (see 2Ti 4:20).

The original recipients of the letter were the people of the church at Rome (1:7), who were predominantly Gentile. Jews, however, must have constituted a substantial minority of the congregation (see 4:1; chs. 9-11; see also note on 1:13). Perhaps Paul originally sent the entire letter to the Roman church, after which he or someone else used a shorter form (chs. 1-14 or 1-15) for more general distribution. See note on 2Pe 3:15; see also map, p. 2314.

Major Theme
Paul’s primary theme in Romans is the basic gospel, God’s plan of salvation and righteousness for all humankind, Jew and Gentile alike (see 1:16-17 and notes). Although justification by faith has been suggested by some as the theme, it would seem that a broader theme states the message of the book more adequately. “Righteousness from God” (1:17) includes justification by faith, but it also embraces such related ideas as guilt, sanctification and security.

Paul’s purposes for writing this letter were varied:

He wrote to prepare the way for his coming visit to Rome and his proposed mission to Spain (1:10-15; 15:22-29).
He wrote to present the basic system of salvation to a church that had not received the teaching of an apostle before.
He sought to explain the relationship between Jew and Gentile in God’s overall plan of redemption. The Jewish Christians were being rejected by the larger Gentile group in the church (see 14:1 and note) because the Jewish believers still felt constrained to observe dietary laws and sacred days (14:2-6).

When Paul wrote this letter, he was probably at Corinth (see Ac 20:2-3 and notes) on his third missionary journey. His work in the eastern Mediterranean was almost finished (see 15:18-23), and he greatly desired to visit the Roman church (see 1:11-12; 15:23-24). At this time, however, he could not go to Rome because he felt he must personally deliver the collection taken among the Gentile churches for the poverty-stricken Christians of Jerusalem (see 15:25-28 and notes). So instead of going to Rome, he sent a letter to prepare the Christians there for his intended visit in connection with a mission to Spain (see 15:23-24 and note on 15:24). For many years Paul had wanted to visit Rome to minister there (see 1:13-15), and this letter served as a careful and systematic theological introduction to that hoped-for personal ministry. Since he was not acquainted directly with the Roman church, he says little about its problems (but see 14:1- 15:13; cf. also 13:1-7; 16:17-18).

Paul begins by surveying the spiritual condition of all people. He finds Jews and Gentiles alike to be sinners and in need of salvation. That salvation has been provided by God through Jesus Christ and his redemptive work on the cross. It is a provision, however, that must be received by faith- a principle by which God has always dealt with humankind, as the example of Abraham shows. Since salvation is only the beginning of Christian experience, Paul moves on to show how believers are freed from sin, law and death- a provision made possible by their union with Christ in both death and resurrection and by the indwelling presence and power of the Holy Spirit. Paul then shows that Israel too, though presently in a state of unbelief, has a place in God’s sovereign redemptive plan. Now she consists of only a remnant, allowing for the conversion of the Gentiles, but the time will come when “all Israel will be saved” (11:26; see note there). The letter concludes with an appeal to the readers to work out their Christian faith in practical ways, both in the church and in the world. None of Paul’s other letters states so profoundly the content of the gospel and its implications for both the present and the future.

Special Characteristics
The most systematic of Paul’s letters. It reads more like an elaborate theological essay than a letter.
Emphasis on Christian doctrine. The number and importance of the theological themes touched upon are impressive: sin and death, salvation, grace, faith, righteousness, justification, sanctification, redemption, resurrection and glorification.
Widespread use of OT quotations. Although Paul regularly quotes from the OT in his letters, in Romans the argument is sometimes carried along by such quotations (see especially chs. 9-11).
Deep concern for Israel. Paul writes about her present status, her relationship to the Gentiles and her final salvation.


Introduction (1:1-15)

Theme: Righteousness from God (1:16-17)

The Unrighteousness of All People (1:18- 3:20)

Gentiles (1:18-32)

Jews (2:1- 3:8)

Summary: All People (3:9-20)

Righteousness Imputed: Justification (3:21- 5:21)

Through Christ (3:21-26)

Received by Faith (3:27- 4:25)

The principle established (3:27-31)

The principle illustrated (ch. 4)

The Fruits of Righteousness (5:1-11)

Summary: Humanity’s Unrighteousness Contrasted with God’s Gift of Righteousness (5:12-21)

Righteousness Imparted: Sanctification (chs. 6-8)

Freedom from Sin’s Tyranny (ch. 6)

Freedom from the Law’s Condemnation (ch. 7)

Life in the Power of the Holy Spirit (ch. 8)

God’s Righteousness Vindicated: The Justice of His Way with Israel (chs. 9-11)

The Justice of God’s Rejection of Israel (9:1-29)

The Cause of That Rejection (9:30- 10:21)

The Rejection Is Neither Complete nor Final (ch. 11)

There is even now a remnant (11:1-10)

The rejection is only temporary (11:11-24)

God’s ultimate purpose is mercy (11:25-36)

Righteousness Practiced (12:1- 15:13)

In the Body- the Church (ch. 12)

In the World (ch. 13)

Among Weak and Strong Christians (14:1- 15:13)

Conclusion (15:14-33)

Commendation, Greetings and Doxology (ch. 16)

Isaiah 30

Isa 30:1 Woe to rebellious sons, declares Jehovah, to make counsel, but not from Me; and to weave a covering web, but not of My Spirit, in order to add sin on sin;
Isa 30:2 who are walking to go down to Egypt, but have not asked at My mouth, to take refuge in the stronghold of Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt.
Isa 30:3 And the stronghold of Pharaoh shall become a shame to you; and relying on the shadow of Egypt shall be a disgrace.
Isa 30:4 For his rulers were in Zoan, and his ambassadors reached to Hanes.
Isa 30:5 Every one is ashamed over a people who do not profit them; they are not for a help, and not for profiting, but for a shame; yea, also for a reproach.
Isa 30:6 The burden of the beasts of the south: Into the land of trouble and constraint. The lioness and the lion are from them; the viper and fiery flying serpent. They carry their riches on the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures on the humps of camels, to a people who cannot profit them.
Isa 30:7 And Egypt; vainly and emptily they help. So I have called to this: Their strength is to sit still.
Isa 30:8 Now come, write it before them on a tablet, and note it on a book, so that it may be for the latter day, until forever;
Isa 30:9 that this is a rebellious people, lying sons; sons who are not willing to hear the Law of Jehovah;
Isa 30:10 who say to the seers, Do not see; and to visioners, Do not have a vision for right things to us; speak smooth things to us; have a vision of trifles.
Isa 30:11 Turn aside from the way; stretch from the path; cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us.
Isa 30:12 For this reason, so says the Holy One of Israel, Because of your rejection of this Word, and your trust in oppression and perversity, even resting on it;
Isa 30:13 So this iniquity shall be to you as a broken section falling, like the bulging out of a high wall, the breaking of which comes suddenly, in an instant.
Isa 30:14 And its smashing is as the smashing of a potter’s vessel; when broken in pieces, he has no pity; for in its breaking there is not found a shard to carry fire from the hearth, nor to skim water from a well.
Isa 30:15 For so says the Lord Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, In returning and rest you shall be saved; and in quietness and hope shall be your strength. But you were not willing.
Isa 30:16 For you said, No! For we will flee on horseback. On account of this you shall flee. Also, you say, We will ride on swift ones. On account of this, those who pursue you shall be swift.
Isa 30:17 One thousand shall flee at the rebuke of one. You shall flee from the rebuke of five, until you are left like a pole on the top of the mountain, and like a sign on a hill.
Isa 30:18 And so Jehovah waits to be gracious to you. And for this He is exalted to have mercy on you; for Jehovah is a God of justice. Blessed are all who wait for Him.
Isa 30:19 For the people shall live in Zion, at Jerusalem; you shall surely cry no more. He surely will be gracious to you at the sound of your cry. When He hears, He will answer you.
Isa 30:20 And the Lord gives you the bread of adversity, and the water of affliction; but your teachers shall not be hidden any more; but your eyes shall be able to see your teachers.
Isa 30:21 And your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying, This is the way, walk in it, when you go right, or when you go left.
Isa 30:22 And you shall defile the covering of your carved images of silver; and the covering of your molten images of gold. You shall strew them as a menstruous cloth; you shall say to it, Go out!
Isa 30:23 Then He shall give rain for your seed, with which you sow the ground. And the bread of the produce of the earth also shall be fat and plentiful. In that day your livestock shall feed in a pasture made wide.
Isa 30:24 Also, the oxen and the young asses that till the ground shall eat seasoned fodder which one winnows with the shovel and with the fork.
Isa 30:25 And on every high mountain, and on every high hill, shall be rivulets lifted up, streams of water, in a day of great slaying, when towers fall.
Isa 30:26 And the moonlight shall be like the light of the sun. And the sun’s light shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day of binding up, Jehovah binding the break of His people, and healing the wound of His blow.
Isa 30:27 Behold, the name of Jehovah comes from afar; His anger burns; and is heavy as the uplifting of smoke; His lips are full of fury, and His tongue like a devouring fire.
Isa 30:28 And like an overflowing torrent, His breath shall divide to the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity, and a misleading bridle on the jaws of the peoples.
Isa 30:29 The song shall be to you, as the night when the feast is sanctified, and gladness of heart, as one going with the flute, to come into the mount of Jehovah, to the Rock of Israel.
Isa 30:30 And Jehovah shall make the majesty of His voice heard; and He causes His arm to be seen coming down with raging anger and flame of consuming fire, cloudburst and storm, and hailstones.
Isa 30:31 For through the voice of Jehovah, Assyria shall be crushed, the rod with which He strikes.
Isa 30:32 And every passage of the appointed staff that Jehovah causes to rest on him will be with timbrels and with harps. And in brandishing battles He fights with her.
Isa 30:33 For Topheth is ordained from yesterday. Also, it is prepared for the king; He deepened; He widened its pyre; He makes great with fire and wood. The breath of Jehovah burns in it like a torrent of brimstone.

Isaiah 29

Isa 29:1 Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city where David camped. Add year on year; let feasts run their circle.
Isa 29:2 Then I will compress Ariel, and there shall be mourning and sorrow; and it shall be to Me as Ariel.
Isa 29:3 And I will camp as a circle on you, and will lay siege work on you; and I will raise up ramparts on you.
Isa 29:4 And you shall be brought low; you shall speak from the ground; and your speech shall be bowed down; and your voice shall be from the ground, like a medium; and your speech shall chirp out of the dust.
Isa 29:5 And the host of your strangers shall be as fine powder, and as chaff passing, the host of terrifying ones; and it will be suddenly, instantly;
Isa 29:6 you shall be visited from Jehovah of Hosts; with thunder and earthquake, and great noise, tempest and storm, and flame of devouring fire.
Isa 29:7 And the multitude of all the nations who fight against Ariel, even all battling her and compressing her and her stronghold, shall be like a dream of a night vision.
Isa 29:8 It shall even be as when a hungry one dreams; and, behold, he is eating; but when he awakes, his soul is empty. Or it shall be as when a thirsty one dreams; and, behold, he is drinking, but when he awakes, he is faint, and his soul is longing. So shall be the multitude of all the nations who fight against Mount Zion.
Isa 29:9 Wait and wonder! Blind yourselves, and be blind! They are drunk, but not with wine! They stagger, but not with fermented drink!
Isa 29:10 For Jehovah has poured out on you the spirit of deep sleep, and has closed your eyes. He has covered the prophets and your heads, the seers.
Isa 29:11 And the whole vision to you is like the words of a sealed book which they give to one knowing books, saying, Please read this. Then he says, I am not able, for it is sealed.
Isa 29:12 And the book is given to one who does not know books, saying, Please read this. Then he says, I do not know books.
Isa 29:13 And the Lord says, Because this people draws near with its mouth, and they honor Me with its lip; but its heart is far from Me, and their fear of Me is taught by the commandments of men;
Isa 29:14 So, behold, I am adding to do wonderfully with this people, the wonder, even a wonder. For the wisdom of his wise ones shall perish, and the wit of his witty ones shall be hidden.
Isa 29:15 Woe to those who go deep to hide their purposes from Jehovah; yea, their works are in the dark; and they say, Who sees us? And, Who knows us?
Isa 29:16 Oh your perversity! Shall the former be counted as the clay? For shall the work of its maker say, He did not make me? Or shall the thing formed say to him who formed it, He does not understand?
Isa 29:17 Is it not yet a little while, and Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitful field; and the fruitful field shall be counted for the forest?
Isa 29:18 And in that day the deaf shall hear the words of a book; and the eyes of the blind shall see out of their gloom and out of darkness.
Isa 29:19 And the humble ones shall increase joy in Jehovah, and the poor among men shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel.
Isa 29:20 For the terrible one is brought to nothing; and the scorner is ended; and all that watch for iniquity are cut off;
Isa 29:21 those who make a man sin by a word, even laying a trap for the reprover in the gate, and turn aside the just for a worthless thing.
Isa 29:22 So Jehovah says this: He who redeemed Abraham, as to the house of Jacob: Jacob shall not be ashamed now, nor shall his face become pale now.
Isa 29:23 But when he sees his children in his midst, the work of My hands, they shall sanctify My name. They shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall fear the God of Israel.
Isa 29:24 Those who erred in spirit shall come to understanding, and those who murmured shall learn the instruction.

Isaiah 28

Isa 28:1 Woe to the crown of pride of the drunkards of Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower on the head of the fat valley of those who are overcome with wine!
Isa 28:2 Behold, the Lord is a mighty and strong one; like a hailstorm, a destroying storm; like a storm of mighty waters overflowing; He sets down to the earth with His hand.
Isa 28:3 The crown of pride of the drunkards of Ephraim shall be trampled down.
Isa 28:4 And the glorious beauty which is on the head of the fat valley shall be a fading flower, like the first ripe fig before summer which the seeing one sees; while it is yet in his hand, he swallows it.
Isa 28:5 In that day Jehovah of Hosts shall become a crown of glory and a diadem of beauty to the rest of His people,
Isa 28:6 and a spirit of justice to him who sits on the judgment seat; and for might to those turning back the battle toward the gate.
Isa 28:7 But they also have gone astray by wine, and have erred through fermented drink; priest and prophet have erred through fermented drink; they have been swallowed by wine; they strayed from fermented drink; they err in vision; they stumble in judgment;
Isa 28:8 for all tables are full of vomit and filth, without a clean place.
Isa 28:9 To whom shall He teach knowledge? And to whom shall He explain the message? Those weaned from milk, those moving from breasts?
Isa 28:10 For precept must be on precept, precept on precept; line on line, line on line; here a little, there a little.
Isa 28:11 For with stammering lip and other languages, He will speak to this people;
Isa 28:12 to whom He said, This is the rest; cause the weary to rest. Also, This is the repose. But they willed not to hear.
Isa 28:13 Yet the Word of Jehovah was to them, precept on precept, precept on precept; line on line, line on line; here a little, there a little; that they might go, and stumble, and be broken, and snared, and taken.
Isa 28:14 So hear the Word of Jehovah, scornful men, rulers of this people in Jerusalem.
Isa 28:15 Because you have said, We have cut a covenant with death; and, We have made a vision with Sheol, when the overwhelming rod passes through it will not come to us for we have made the lie our refuge, and we have hidden in falsehood.
Isa 28:16 So, the Lord Jehovah says this: Behold, I place in Zion a Stone for a foundation, a tried Stone, a precious Cornerstone, a sure Foundation; he who believes shall not hasten.
Isa 28:17 And I will lay justice for a line, and righteousness for a plummet; and the hail shall sweep away the refuge of the lie; and the waters shall overflow the hiding place.
Isa 28:18 And your covenant with death shall be covered; and your vision with Sheol shall not rise up. When the overwhelming whip passes through, then you shall be for a trampling to it.
Isa 28:19 As often as it passes, it shall take you; for morning by morning it shall pass; and by day and by night, it shall only be a terror to understand the message.
Isa 28:20 For the bed is shorter than one can stretch himself on; and the cover is narrower than one can wrap himself in.
Isa 28:21 For Jehovah shall rise up, as at Mount Perazim; He shall be stirred as in the Gibeon Valley; to do His work, His strange work; and to perform His task, His alien task.
Isa 28:22 So, then, do not be mockers, that your bonds not be made strong. For I have heard from the Lord Jehovah of Hosts that a full end is decreed on all the earth.
Isa 28:23 Give ear and hear My voice; pay attention and hear My Word:
Isa 28:24 Does the plowman plow all day to sow? Does he open and break the clods of his ground?
Isa 28:25 When he has leveled its surface, does he not strew black cummin, and scatter cummin, and place wheat in rows, and barley in its place, and spelt in its border?
Isa 28:26 And He instructs him for the right; his God teaches him.
Isa 28:27 For black cummin is not threshed with the sledge; nor is a cartwheel turned on cummin. But black cummin is beaten out with the staff, and cummin with the rod.
Isa 28:28 Bread is crushed, but not always does one thresh it with threshing; and he drives the wheel of his cart; and his horses do not beat it small.
Isa 28:29 This also comes from Jehovah of Hosts, doing wonders in counsel, making sound wisdom great.

Isaiah 27

Isa 27:1 In that day Jehovah shall visit the sea monster, the darting serpent, with His great and fierce and strong sword; even on the sea monster, the twisting serpent; and He shall slay the monster that is in the sea.
Isa 27:2 In that day sing to it, A vineyard of desire;
Isa 27:3 I, Jehovah, keep it; I will water it every moment, that no one punish it; I will guard it night and day.
Isa 27:4 Fury is not in Me. Who will give Me briers and thorns in the battle? I will step through it; I would burn it at once.
Isa 27:5 Or will he lay hold of My strength that he may make peace with Me? Let him make peace with Me.
Isa 27:6 Those coming in shall take root; Jacob shall blossom and Israel shall bud, and they will fill the face of the world with fruit.
Isa 27:7 As the striking of His striker, did He strike him? Or as the slaying of His slain, is he slain?
Isa 27:8 You will contend with her by driving her away, by sending her away. He shall take away by His harsh wind, in the day of the east wind.
Isa 27:9 By this, then, the iniquity of Jacob will be covered, and this is all the fruit, to take away his sin; when he makes all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are beaten in pieces; Asherahs and sun pillars shall not rise.
Isa 27:10 For the fortified city shall be lonely, a forsaken pasture, and left like a wilderness. The calf shall feed there, and he shall lie there, and eat up its branches.
Isa 27:11 When its boughs dry up, they are broken off. Women shall come and kindle them, for it is a people with no understanding. On account of this His Maker shall not pity him, and His Former will not favor him.
Isa 27:12 And it shall be in that day, Jehovah shall thresh from the channel of the River to the torrent of Egypt; and you shall be gathered one by one, sons of Israel.
Isa 27:13 And it shall be in that day, the great ram’s horn shall be blown; and those perishing in the land of Assyria and the outcasts in the land of Egypt shall come and shall worship Jehovah in the holy mountain in Jerusalem.

Isaiah 26

Isa 26:1 In that day this song shall be sung in the land of Judah: A strong city is ours; He sets up salvation as our walls and rampart.
Isa 26:2 Open the gates, and the righteous nation shall come in, keeping faithfulness.
Isa 26:3 You will keep in perfect peace the mind stayed on You, for he trusts in You.
Isa 26:4 Trust in Jehovah forever, for in Jah Jehovah is everlasting strength.
Isa 26:5 For He bows the dwellers on high; He lays low the lofty city; He lays it low to the ground; He makes it touch even to the dust.
Isa 26:6 The foot shall trample it, the feet of the poor, steps of the weak.
Isa 26:7 The path for the just is uprightness. Upright One, level the track of the just.
Isa 26:8 Yea, Jehovah, in the path of Your judgments we awaited You; for Your name and for Your memory is the desire of our soul.
Isa 26:9 With my soul I desire You in the night; yea, with my spirit within me I diligently seek You. For when Your judgments are in the earth, those living in the world learn righteousness.
Isa 26:10 The wicked finds favor; he does not learn righteousness; he deals perversely in the land of honesty, and does not see the majesty of Jehovah.
Isa 26:11 Jehovah, Your hand is high; they do not see; they see and are ashamed of the zeal of the people. Yea, the fire of Your foes devours them.
Isa 26:12 Jehovah, You will ordain peace for us; for also You have worked all our works for us.
Isa 26:13 Jehovah our God, masters beside You have governed us; only in You we will mention Your name.
Isa 26:14 Dead ones do not live; departed spirits do not rise; because of this You visited and destroyed them, and caused all memory of them to perish.
Isa 26:15 You have added to the nation, Jehovah; You have added to the nation, You are glorified; You have put far off all the ends of the land.
Isa 26:16 Jehovah, they visited You in distress; they poured out a whisper; Your chastening was to them.
Isa 26:17 As a woman with child draws near to bear, she writhes and cries out in her pangs. So are we before You, Jehovah.
Isa 26:18 We conceived; we writhe; as it were, we gave birth to wind. We have not worked salvation for the earth; and those living in the world have not fallen.
Isa 26:19 Your dead ones shall live, my dead body, they shall rise up. Awake and sing, dust dwellers; for the dew of lights is your dew; and the earth shall cast out departed spirits.
Isa 26:20 Come, My people, go in your rooms and shut your doors behind you. Hide for a little moment, until the fury passes.
Isa 26:21 For, behold, Jehovah comes out of His place to visit his iniquity on those dwelling on the earth. The earth shall also reveal her blood, and shall no more cover over her slain ones.

Isaiah 25

Isa 25:1 O Jehovah, You are my God. I will exalt You; I will thank Your name; for You have done a wonderful thing: counsels from afar; faithful faithfulness.
Isa 25:2 Because You have made a heap from a city, a fortified city into a ruin; a citadel of foreigners not to be a city, not to be built, to forever.
Isa 25:3 For this the mighty people glorify You, the city of the ruthless nations shall fear You.
Isa 25:4 For You are a stronghold to the poor, a stronghold to the needy in his distress, a refuge from storm, a shadow from heat; because the breath of the ruthless is like a storm against a wall.
Isa 25:5 You shall lay low the noise of foreigners, like the heat in a dry place, the heat with the shadow of cloud; the shouting of the terrifying ones shall be laid low.
Isa 25:6 And Jehovah of Hosts shall make a feast of fat things for all the peoples in this mountain; a feast of wine on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, refined wine on the lees.
Isa 25:7 And He will destroy in this mountain the face of the covering which covers all people, and the veil that is woven over all nations.
Isa 25:8 He will swallow up death in victory! And the Lord Jehovah will wipe away tears from all faces. And He shall reprove the reproach of His people from all the earth; for Jehovah has spoken.
Isa 25:9 And one shall say in that day, Behold, this is our God; we have waited for Him, and He will save us. This is Jehovah; we have waited for Him; we will be glad and rejoice in His salvation.
Isa 25:10 For the hand of Jehovah shall rest in this mountain; and Moab shall be trampled under Him, even as straw is trampled in the water of a dung pit.
Isa 25:11 And He shall spread His hands in his midst, as he who swims strokes to swim. And He shall lay low his pride with the skill of His hands.
Isa 25:12 And He shall bow down the fortress of the height of your walls; He will lay low, touch to the earth, even to the dust.

Isaiah 24

Isa 24:1 Lo, Jehovah empties the land and makes it bare, and distorts its face, and scatters those living in it.
Isa 24:2 And as it is with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with the master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the creditor, so with the debtor.
Isa 24:3 The land shall completely be emptied and utterly stripped, for Jehovah has spoken this Word.
Isa 24:4 The land mourns and languishes; the world droops and languishes; the proud people of the earth droop.
Isa 24:5 And the earth is profaned under those living in it, because they transgress laws and violate a statute, and break the everlasting covenant.
Isa 24:6 On account of this a curse has devoured the land; and they who live in it are held guilty. For this those living in the land are consumed, and few men are left.
Isa 24:7 The new wine has failed; the vine droops; all the merry-hearted sigh.
Isa 24:8 The exultation of timbrels ceases; the noise of those who revel ends; the exultation of the harp ceases.
Isa 24:9 They shall not drink wine with a song; fermented drink shall be bitter to those who drink it.
Isa 24:10 The city of shame is broken down; every house is shut, that no one may enter.
Isa 24:11 A crying over the wine is in the streets; all joy is darkened; the gladness in the land is exiled.
Isa 24:12 Desolation is remaining in the city, and a ruin; the gate is battered.
Isa 24:13 For it is thus in the midst of the land, among the peoples, it shall be as the shaking of an olive tree, and as gleanings when the grape harvest is completed.
Isa 24:14 They lift up their voice; they sing for the majesty of Jehovah; they cry aloud from the sea.
Isa 24:15 On account of this, glorify Jehovah in the flames, the name of Jehovah God of Israel, in the coasts of the sea.
Isa 24:16 We have heard songs from the end of the earth, Honor to the Righteous. But I said, Leanness to me! Leanness to me! Woe to me! Traitors betray, even with treachery; traitors betray!
Isa 24:17 Dread, and the pit, and a snare are upon you, one living in the earth.
Isa 24:18 And it shall be, he who flees from the sound of dread shall fall into the pit. And he who comes up out of the middle of the pit shall be taken in the snare. For the windows from on high are opened, and the earth’s foundations quake.
Isa 24:19 The earth is breaking, breaking! The earth is crashing, crashing! The earth is tottering, tottering.
Isa 24:20 Like a drunkard, the earth is staggering, staggering! And it rocks to and fro like a hut. And its trespass is heavy on it; and it shall fall, and not rise again.
Isa 24:21 And it shall be in that day, Jehovah shall punish the army of the high place on high, and on the kings of the land on the land.
Isa 24:22 And they will be gathered, a gathering of prisoners in a dungeon. And they shall be shut up in a prison; and after many days they will be visited.
Isa 24:23 Then the moon shall blush, and the sun shall be ashamed, when Jehovah of Hosts shall reign in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem; and before His elders is His glory.

Isaiah 23

Isa 23:1 The burden of Tyre: Howl, ships of Tarshish! For it is ruined, without house, without entrance. It is revealed to them from the land of Kittim.
Isa 23:2 Be still, ones living in the coast, trader of Sidon crossing the sea; they have filled you.
Isa 23:3 And by great waters, the seed of Sihor and the harvest of the river Nile was her revenue; and she a mart of nations.
Isa 23:4 Be ashamed, Sidon, for the sea has spoken, the strength of the sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth, I have not nourished young men nor raised up virgins.
Isa 23:5 As the report comes to Egypt, so they shall be grieved at the report of Tyre.
Isa 23:6 Pass over Tarshish; howl, people of the coast!
Isa 23:7 Is this your exulting city from days of her old age? Her own feet carry it far away to stay.
Isa 23:8 Who has counseled this against Tyre, the crowning city, whose merchants are rulers, whose traders are the weighty of the earth?
Isa 23:9 Jehovah of Hosts has counseled it, to stain the pride of all glory, to bring all the honored of the earth into contempt.
Isa 23:10 Pass through your land as the Nile, O daughter of Tarshish; there is no more strength.
Isa 23:11 He stretched His hand over the sea; He shook kingdoms. Jehovah has made a decree against the merchant city, to destroy its forts.
Isa 23:12 And He said, You shall rejoice no more, oppressed one, virgin daughter of Sidon. Arise, cross over to Cyprus, even there is no rest to you.
Isa 23:13 Behold, the land of the Chaldeans! This people did not exist! Assyria founded it for those who live in the desert. They set up their siege towers; they lay bare its palaces; they appointed it to be a ruin.
Isa 23:14 Howl, ships of Tarshish! For your fortress is ruined.
Isa 23:15 And it shall be in that day that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king. At the end of seventy years, it will be as the song of a harlot to Tyre.
Isa 23:16 Take a harp; go about the city, O forgotten harlot. Do well to play; make many songs, that you may be remembered.
Isa 23:17 And it will be, after the end of seventy years, Jehovah will visit Tyre; and she shall return to her hire, and will fornicate with all the kingdoms of the earth on the face of the earth.
Isa 23:18 And her goods and her wages shall be holiness to Jehovah; it shall not be hoarded nor stored; for her goods shall be for those who dwell before Jehovah, to eat enough, and for a choice covering.

Isaiah 22

Isa 22:1 The burden of the valley of vision: What ails you now, that you have gone up to the housetops?
Isa 22:2 Crashings fill the noisy city, the joyous city. Your slain ones are not slain by the sword, nor died in battle.
Isa 22:3 All your rulers fled together; they were bound without the bow; all found in you were bound together; they have fled from afar.
Isa 22:4 On account of this I said, Look away from me; I will weep bitterly; do not hurry to comfort me over the ruin of the daughter of my people.
Isa 22:5 for it is a day of trouble, and of trampling down, and of perplexity, by the Lord, Jehovah of Hosts, in the valley of vision; digging down a wall, and crying to the mountain.
Isa 22:6 And Persia lifted the quiver with a chariot of a man and horsemen; and Kir uncovered the shield.
Isa 22:7 And it happened; your choicest valleys were full of chariots; and the horsemen surely set in order at the gate.
Isa 22:8 And he removed Judah’s covering; and you looked in that day to the armor of the house of the forest.
Isa 22:9 You have also seen the breaks in the city of David, that they are many; and you gathered the waters of the lower pool.
Isa 22:10 And you have counted the houses of Jerusalem; and you broke down the houses to fortify the wall.
Isa 22:11 And you made a reservoir between the walls, for the water of the old pool. But you have not looked to its Maker, nor did you see its Former from long ago.
Isa 22:12 And in that day the Lord Jehovah of Hosts called to weeping and mourning; and to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth.
Isa 22:13 Then, lo, joy and gladness, slaying oxen and slaughtering sheep; eating flesh and drinking wine, saying, Eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!
Isa 22:14 And Jehovah of Hosts revealed in my ears, Surely this iniquity shall not be covered for you until you die, says the Lord Jehovah of Hosts.
Isa 22:15 So says the Lord Jehovah of Hosts, Go! Go to this treasurer, to Shebna who is over the house.
Isa 22:16 What is to you here? And who is here to you, that you have carved a tomb for yourself here, as one having cut out his tomb on high, having carved out a home for himself in the rock?
Isa 22:17 Behold, Jehovah hurls you with a hurling, O man, and grasps you with a grasping.
Isa 22:18 Whirling, He will whirl you like a ball, into a land wide of hands. You shall die there, and there are the chariots of your glory, the shame of your lord’s house.
Isa 22:19 And I will drive you from your position, and he will pull you from your station.
Isa 22:20 And in that day it shall be, even I will call to My servant Eliakim the son of Hilkiah.
Isa 22:21 And I will clothe him with your robe and will fasten your sash on him. And I will give your authority into his hand. And he shall be a father to the ones living in Jerusalem and to the house of Judah.
Isa 22:22 And the key of the house of David I will lay on his shoulder, so that he opens, and no one shuts; and he shuts, and no one opens.
Isa 22:23 And I will drive him as a nail in a sure place; and he shall be for a throne of glory to his father’s house.
Isa 22:24 And they shall hang on him all the glory of his father’s house, the offspring and the offshoots, all small vessels, from vessels of cups even to all vessels of jars.
Isa 22:25 In that day, says Jehovah of Hosts, the nail that is driven in the sure place shall be removed, and be cut down, and fall. And the burden that was on it shall be cut off. Jehovah has spoken.

Isaiah 21

Isa 21:1 The burden of the desert of the sea: As tempests in the Negeb pass, it comes from the desert from a terrifying land.
Isa 21:2 A harsh vision is revealed to me; the one betraying betrays, and the one ravaging ravages. Go up, O Elam! Besiege, O Media! I have caused all her sighing to cease.
Isa 21:3 Because of this my loins are filled with pain; pangs have taken hold on me like the pangs of a travailing woman. I am bowed from hearing; I am troubled from seeing.
Isa 21:4 My heart wanders; terror overwhelms me; He has made the twilight of my desire into a fear.
Isa 21:5 Arrange the table; watch in the watchtower; eat, drink; rise up, rulers, and anoint the shield.
Isa 21:6 For so the Lord has said to me: Go, set a watchman; he will declare what he sees.
Isa 21:7 And he sees a chariot, a couple of horsemen; a chariot of an ass; a chariot of a camel; and let him bow attentively, very attentively.
Isa 21:8 And he cried, A lion! My lord, I always stand on my watchtower by day; and I am stationed at my post all the nights.
Isa 21:9 And, behold, here comes a chariot of a man, a pair of horses. And he answered and said, Babylon has fallen, has fallen! And He has smashed the graven images of her gods to the earth.
Isa 21:10 Oh my threshing, and the grain of my floor! That which I have heard of Jehovah of Hosts, the God of Israel, I have told to you.
Isa 21:11 The burden of Dumah: He calls to me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night?
Isa 21:12 The watchman says, The morning comes, and also night. If you would inquire, inquire. Come! Return!
Isa 21:13 The burden of Arabia: You shall stay in the forest of Arabia, travelers of Dedanites.
Isa 21:14 The people of the land of Tema bring water to him who is thirsty; they went to meet the fugitive with his bread.
Isa 21:15 For they fled from before swords, from the drawn sword, and from the bent bow, and from the press of battle.
Isa 21:16 For so the Lord has said to me, Within a year, as the years of a hireling, all the glory of Kedar shall be ended,
Isa 21:17 and the rest of the number of the archers, the warriors of the sons of Kedar, shall be few. For Jehovah God of Israel has spoken.

Psalm 40

Psa 40:1 To the chief musician. A Psalm of David. Waiting I have waited on Jehovah; and He turned to me and heard my cry.
Psa 40:2 And He drew me up from the pit of tumult, out of the miry clay; He lifted my feet on a rock; He directed my steps.
Psa 40:3 And He put a new song of praise to our God in my mouth; many shall see and shall fear and shall trust in Jehovah.
Psa 40:4 Blessed is the man who sets Jehovah as his trust, and does not turn to the proud, or to those who turn to a lie.
Psa 40:5 Many things have You done, O Jehovah my God; Your works of wonder and Your purposes toward us; there is none to set them in order to You; I will declare and I will speak; they are more than can be counted.
Psa 40:6 Sacrifice and offering You did not desire; You have opened ears to Me. You have not asked burnt offering and sin offering.
Psa 40:7 Then I said, Lo, I come, in the roll of the Book it is written of Me;
Psa 40:8 I delight to do Your will, O My God; and Your Law is within My inmost soul.
Psa 40:9 I have announced righteousness in the great assembly; behold, I will not restrain My lips; O Jehovah You know.
Psa 40:10 I have not concealed Your righteousness in My heart; I speak Your faithfulness and Your salvation. I have not hidden Your loving-kindness and Your truth from the great assembly.
Psa 40:11 Do not withhold Your tender mercies from me, O Jehovah; let Your lovingkindness and Your truth always watch over me.
Psa 40:12 For evils have surrounded me until there is no number; my iniquities have taken hold on me and I am not able to look up; they are more than the hairs of my head, and my heart fails me.
Psa 40:13 Be pleased to deliver me, O Jehovah; hasten to my help.
Psa 40:14 Let those seeking my soul to destroy it, be ashamed and humbled together; let those delighting in my evil be driven back and disgraced.
Psa 40:15 Let them be desolate until it is the reward for their shame; for they are saying to me, Aha! Aha!
Psa 40:16 Let all who are seeking You be glad in You and always say, May Jehovah be magnified, those loving Your salvation.
Psa 40:17 But I am poor and needy; the Lord will take thought for me. You are my help and my deliverer; O my God, do not delay.

Psalm 39

Psa 39:1 To the chief musician, to Jeduthun. A Psalm of David. I said, I will keep my ways from sinning with my tongue; I will keep my mouth with a muzzle while the wicked are before me.
Psa 39:2 I became mute and still; from good I was silent, and my pain was stirred.
Psa 39:3 My heart was hot within me; while the fire burned I was meditating; I spoke with my tongue,
Psa 39:4 O Jehovah, make me to know my end and the limit of my days, what it is. Let me know how lacking I am.
Psa 39:5 Behold, like a handbreadth You gave my days; even my life was non-existence before You;
Psa 39:6 surely every man walks about in shadow; surely they are in an uproar in vain; he heaps up and does not know who is gathering them.
Psa 39:7 And now what do I await, Lord? My hope is in You.
Psa 39:8 Deliver me from all my transgressions; do not set me forth as the reproach of the fool.
Psa 39:9 I was mute; I did not open my mouth, because You had done it.
Psa 39:10 Turn away Your stroke from me; I am consumed by the blow of Your hand.
Psa 39:11 You correct a man with rebukes over iniquity; and as a moth You melt away what he desires. Surely every man is vanity. Selah.
Psa 39:12 Hear my prayer, O Jehovah, and give ear to my cry. Do not be silent at my tears, for I am an alien with You, a pilgrim, as were all my fathers.
Psa 39:13 Look away from me and I will be cheerful before I go away and be no more.

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