Genesis 48

Gen 48:1 And after these things it happened, one said to Joseph, Behold, your father is sick. And he took his two sons with him, Manasseh and Ephraim.
Gen 48:2 And one spoke to Jacob and said, Behold, your son Joseph has come to you. And Israel took strength and sat on the bed.
Gen 48:3 And Jacob said to Joseph, God Almighty appeared to me in Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me,
Gen 48:4 and said to me, Behold, I will make you fruitful and will multiply you, and will make you a multitude of peoples. And I will give this land to your seed after you as a continual possession.
Gen 48:5 And now your two sons, those born to you in the land of Egypt before my coming to you in Egypt, are mine, Ephraim and Manasseh, like Reuben and Simeon, even they shall be mine.
Gen 48:6 And your offspring which you father after them, they shall be yours. According to the name of their brothers they shall be called in their inheritance.
Gen 48:7 And I, when I came from Padan, Rachel died on me in the land of Canaan in the way, with only a little way to come to Ephrath. And I buried her there in the way to Ephrath, it being Bethlehem.
Gen 48:8 And Israel saw the sons of Joseph, and he said, Who are these?
Gen 48:9 And Joseph said to his father, They are my sons, whom God has given to me here. And he said, Now bring them to me and I will bless them.
Gen 48:10 And the eyes of Israel were heavy from age, he not being able to see. And he brought them near to him. And he kissed them and embraced them.
Gen 48:11 And Israel said to Joseph, I did not think to see your face, and, behold, God also causes me to see your seed.
Gen 48:12 And Joseph brought them out from his knees; and he bowed his face to the earth.
Gen 48:13 And Joseph took both of them, Ephraim in his right hand, to the left of Israel; and Manasseh in his left hand, to the right of Israel. And he brought them to him.
Gen 48:14 And Israel sent forth his right hand and put it on the head of Ephraim; and he was the younger. And he put his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossing his hands; for Manasseh was the first-born.
Gen 48:15 And he blessed Joseph and said, The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has fed me since I was born until today;
Gen 48:16 The Angel that redeemed me from every evil, may He bless the youths; and may my name be called on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and may they like the fishes increase into a multitude in the midst of the earth.
Gen 48:17 And Joseph saw that his father was putting his right hand on the head of Ephraim; and it was evil in his eyes. And he took hold of his father’s hand to turn it from Ephraim’s head to the head of Manasseh.
Gen 48:18 And Joseph said to his father, Not so, my father! For this one is the first-born; put your right hand on his head.
Gen 48:19 And his father refused and said, I know, my son, I know. He also shall be a people, and he shall become great. But his younger brother shall become greater than he, and his seed shall become the fullness of the nations.
Gen 48:20 And he blessed them in that day, saying, In you shall Israel bless, saying, May God make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh.
Gen 48:21 And Israel said to Joseph, See, I am dying; and God will be with you, and will return you to the land of your fathers.
Gen 48:22 And I will give to you one spur of land beyond your brothers, which I took from the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow.

Genesis 47

Gen 47:1 And Joseph came in and made known to Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brothers, and their flocks and their herds, and all which is theirs, have come in from the land of Canaan.
Gen 47:2 And, behold, they are in the land of Goshen. And he took five men from among his brothers and set them before Pharaoh.
Gen 47:3 And Pharaoh said to his brothers, What is your occupation? And they said to Pharaoh, Your servants are shepherds of flocks, both we and our fathers.
Gen 47:4 And they said to Pharaoh, We have come in to stay in the land, because there is no pasture for the flocks which belong to your servants, for the famine is heavy in the land of Canaan. And now please let your servants live in the land of Goshen.
Gen 47:5 And Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, saying, Your father and your brothers have come in to you.
Gen 47:6 The land of Egypt is before you; cause your father and your brothers to live in the best of the land; let them live in the land of Goshen. And if you know men of ability among them, make them chiefs of livestock over what is mine.
Gen 47:7 And Joseph brought in his father Jacob and placed him before Pharaoh. And Jacob blessed Pharaoh.
Gen 47:8 And Pharaoh said to Jacob, How many are the days of the years of your life?
Gen 47:9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh, The days of the years of my camps are a hundred and thirty years. Few and evil have been the days of the years of my life and they have not reached the days of the years of the life of my fathers, in the days of their camps.
Gen 47:10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh.
Gen 47:11 And Joseph caused his father and his brothers to live, and gave them a place in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh commanded.
Gen 47:12 And Joseph nourished his father and his brothers, and all his father’s house with bread for the mouth of the little ones.
Gen 47:13 And no bread was in the land, because the famine was exceedingly severe. And the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan were exhausted from the famine.
Gen 47:14 And Joseph gathered up all the silver found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan in return for the grain they were buying. And Joseph brought in the silver to the house of Pharaoh.
Gen 47:15 And the silver failed from the land of Egypt, and from the land of Canaan. And all Egypt came in to Joseph, saying, Give us bread; and, Why should we die before you? For the silver has failed.
Gen 47:16 And Joseph said, Give your livestock, and I will give to you for your livestock, if silver has failed.
Gen 47:17 And they brought in their livestock to Joseph. And Joseph gave bread to them for the horses, and for the livestock of the flocks, for the livestock of the herds, and for the asses. And he satisfied them with bread in that year for all their livestock.
Gen 47:18 And that year ended, and they came in to him in the second year and said to him, We cannot hide from my lord that the silver and the livestock of the animals have failed, going to my lord. Nothing is left before my lord except our bodies and our lands.
Gen 47:19 Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land for bread; and let us, we and our land, become slaves to Pharaoh. And give seed so that we may live and not die, and the land not be desolate.
Gen 47:20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, because each one in Egypt sold his field, because this famine was severe on them; and the land became Pharaoh’s.
Gen 47:21 And as for the people, he caused them to pass over into the cities, and from the end of the border of Egypt to its other end.
Gen 47:22 Only he did not buy the land of the priests; for Pharaoh had appointed a portion for the priests, and they usually ate their appointed portion which Pharaoh gave to them. For this reason they did not sell their land.
Gen 47:23 And Joseph said to the people, Behold, I have bought you and your land today. Behold! Here is seed for you; and you sow the land.
Gen 47:24 And it shall be, as you gather you shall give a fifth part to Pharaoh; and four parts shall be yours, for the seed of the field and for your food, and for those in your houses, and for food for your little ones.
Gen 47:25 And they said, You have saved our lives; let us find favor in the eyes of my lord, and we will become slaves to Pharaoh.
Gen 47:26 And Joseph made it a law until this day on the land of Egypt, the fifth part is for Pharaoh; only the land of the priests being excepted; it did not become Pharaoh’s.
Gen 47:27 And Israel lived in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen. And they owned in it, and were fruitful, and multiplied exceedingly.
Gen 47:28 And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years. And the days of Jacob, the years of his life were a hundred and forty seven years.
Gen 47:29 And the days of Israel to die drew near. And he called to his son Joseph and said to him, Now if I have found favor in your eyes, please put your hand under my thigh, and do kindness and truth with me. Please do not bury me in Egypt;
Gen 47:30 but let me lie with my fathers, and carry me from Egypt, and bury me in their burying place. And he said, I will do according to your words.
Gen 47:31 And he said, Swear to me. And he swore to him. And Israel bowed on the head of the bed.

Genesis 46

Gen 46:1 And Israel and all which were to him departed, and he came to Beer-sheba. And he sacrificed sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac.
Gen 46:2 And God said to Israel in visions of the night, and He spoke, Jacob! Jacob! And he answered, Behold me.
Gen 46:3 And He said, I am God, the God of your fathers. Do not fear to go down into Egypt, for I will make of you a great nation there.
Gen 46:4 I will go down with you into Egypt, and I will also surely return you. And Joseph shall put his hand on your eyes.
Gen 46:5 And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba; and the sons of Israel carried their father Jacob, and their little ones, and their wives in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him.
Gen 46:6 And they took their livestock and their property which they had acquired in the land of Canaan. And they came into Egypt, Jacob and all his seed with him.
Gen 46:7 His sons and the sons of his sons were with him, his daughters and his sons’ daughters, and all his seed he brought with him into Egypt.
Gen 46:8 And these were the names of the sons of Israel, those coming into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: the first-born of Jacob was Reuben.
Gen 46:9 And the sons of Reuben: Hanoch, and Phallu, and Hezron, and Carmi.
Gen 46:10 And the sons of Simeon: Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanitess.
Gen 46:11 And the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
Gen 46:12 And the sons of Judah: Er, and Onan, and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zerah. And Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the sons of Pharez: Hezron, and Hamul.
Gen 46:13 And the sons of Issachar: Tola, and Phuvah, and Job, and Shimron.
Gen 46:14 And the sons of Zebulun: Sered, and Elon, and Jahleel.
Gen 46:15 These were the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Padan-aram, and his daughter Dinah. All the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty three.
Gen 46:16 And the sons of Gad: Ziphion, and Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli.
Gen 46:17 And the sons of Asher: Jimnah, and Ishuah, and Ishvi, and Beriah, and their sister Serah. And the sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel.
Gen 46:18 These were the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to his daughter Leah; and she bore these to Jacob, sixteen souls.
Gen 46:19 The sons of Rachel the wife of Jacob: Joseph and Benjamin.
Gen 46:20 And Manasseh and Ephraim were born to Joseph in the land of Egypt, whom Asenath the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On, bore to him.
Gen 46:21 And the sons of Benjamin: Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, Ehi, and Rosh, and Muppim, and Huppim, and Ard.
Gen 46:22 These were the sons of Rachel which were born to Jacob; all the souls were fourteen.
Gen 46:23 And the son of Dan was Hushim.
Gen 46:24 And the sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shillem.
Gen 46:25 These were the sons of Bilhah whom Laban gave to his daughter Rachel; and she bore these to Jacob, all the souls were seven.
Gen 46:26 All the souls belonging to Jacob coming into Egypt, those springing from his loins, besides the wives of the sons of Jacob, all the souls were sixty six.
Gen 46:27 And the sons of Joseph which were born to him in Egypt, two souls. All the souls belonging to the house of Jacob coming into Egypt were seventy.
Gen 46:28 And he sent Judah before him to Joseph, to give directions before him to Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen.
Gen 46:29 And Joseph prepared his chariot and went up to meet his father Israel to Goshen. And he appeared to him, and fell on his neck and wept on his neck a long time.
Gen 46:30 And Israel said to Joseph, This time let me die after seeing your face, because you are still alive.
Gen 46:31 And Joseph said to his brothers, and to the house of his father, I will go up and report to Pharaoh. And I will say to him, my brothers and the house of my father, who were in the land of Canaan, have come in to me.
Gen 46:32 And the men are shepherds of flocks for they have been men of livestock. And their flocks and their herds, and all which belongs to them they have brought in.
Gen 46:33 And it shall be, when Pharaoh calls to you and says, What is your occupation?
Gen 46:34 You shall say, Your servants have been men of livestock from our youth even until now, both we and our fathers. This is so that you may live in the land of Goshen. For the abomination of Egypt is every shepherd of flocks.

Genesis 45

Gen 45:1 And Joseph was not able to control himself in regard to those standing beside him. And he called out, Cause every man to go out from me. And no man stood before him as Joseph was making himself known to his brothers.
Gen 45:2 And he wept aloud; and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard.
Gen 45:3 And Joseph said to his brothers, I am Joseph. Is my father still alive? And his brothers were not able to answer him, for they trembled before him.
Gen 45:4 And Joseph said to his brothers, Now come near to me. And they came near. And he said, I am your brother Joseph, whom you sold into Egypt.
Gen 45:5 And now do not be grieved, and let no anger be in your eyes because you sold me here, for God sent me before you to save life.
Gen 45:6 For the famine has been in the midst of the land for two years. And there are still five years in which no plowing and harvest will be.
Gen 45:7 And God sent me before you to put a remnant in the land for you, and to keep alive for you a great deliverance.
Gen 45:8 And now you did not send me here, but God. And He has placed me for a father to Pharaoh, and for a lord in all his house, and a ruler in all the land of Egypt.
Gen 45:9 Hurry and go up to my father, and say to him, So says your son Joseph, God has placed me as a lord to all Egypt. Come down to me, do not delay.
Gen 45:10 And you shall live in the land of Goshen, and you shall be near to me, you and your sons and sons of your sons, and your flocks, and your herds, and all you have.
Gen 45:11 And I will nourish you there, for there are still five years of famine; lest you be made poor, you and your house and all which abides with you.
Gen 45:12 And behold, your eyes and the eyes of my brother Benjamin see that my mouth is speaking to you.
Gen 45:13 And you tell my father of all my honor in Egypt, and all that you have seen. And hurry and bring down my father here.
Gen 45:14 And he fell on the neck of his brother Benjamin and wept, and Benjamin wept on his neck.
Gen 45:15 And he kissed all his brothers, and wept on them. And afterwards his brothers spoke with him.
Gen 45:16 And the report was heard in Pharaoh’s house, saying, The brothers of Joseph have come. And it was good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of his servants.
Gen 45:17 Pharaoh said to Joseph, Say to your brothers, Do this; load your animals and depart; go to the land of Canaan.
Gen 45:18 And take your father, and your houses, and come to me. And I will give to you the good of the land of Egypt; and you shall eat the fat of the land.
Gen 45:19 And you are commanded; you do this: Take for yourselves wagons from the land of Egypt, for your little ones, and for your wives. And take your father and come.
Gen 45:20 And your eye, let it have no regard for your vessels, for the good of all the land of Egypt is yours.
Gen 45:21 And the sons of Israel did so. And Joseph gave wagons to them according to the mouth of Pharaoh, and he gave provision to them for the way.
Gen 45:22 He gave to all of them, to each one, changes of clothing. And he gave to Benjamin three hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of clothing.
Gen 45:23 And to his father he sent this: ten asses bearing the good things of Egypt, and ten she-asses bearing grain, and bread, and food for his father for the way.
Gen 45:24 And he sent his brothers away; and they went. And he said to them, Do not quarrel along the way.
Gen 45:25 And they went up from Egypt and came into the land of Canaan, to their father Jacob.
Gen 45:26 And they told him, saying, Joseph is still alive, and he is ruler in all the land of Egypt. And his heart froze up, for he did not believe them.
Gen 45:27 And they spoke to him all Joseph’s words which he had spoken to them. And he saw the wagons that Joseph had sent to carry him; and the spirit of their father Jacob revived.
Gen 45:28 And Israel said, It is enough! My son Joseph is alive; I will go and see him before I die.

Genesis 44

Gen 44:1 And he commanded the one over his house, saying, Fill the sacks of the men with food, as much as they are able to carry; and put the silver of each one in the mouth of his sack.
Gen 44:2 And put my cup, the cup of silver, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and the silver for his grain. And he did according to Joseph’s word, that which he spoke.
Gen 44:3 At the morning light, the men were sent away, they and their asses.
Gen 44:4 They had gone out from the city, not having gone far, and Joseph said to the one over his house, Rise up, pursue the men and overtake them, and say to them, Why have you repaid evil for good?
Gen 44:5 Is this not that in which my lord is accustomed to drink, and divining he divines by it? You have done evil in what you have done.
Gen 44:6 And he overtook them and spoke these words to them.
Gen 44:7 And they said to him, Why should my lord speak according to these words? Far be it from your servants to do according to this word.
Gen 44:8 Behold! The silver which we found in the mouth of our sacks, we returned to you from the land of Canaan. And how should we steal silver or gold from the house of your lord?
Gen 44:9 With whomever it may be found, with him of your servants, he shall die; and we also will become slaves to my lord.
Gen 44:10 And he said, Now also let it be according to your words; with whomever it is found with him, he shall become a slave to me, and you shall be innocent.
Gen 44:11 And they hurried, and each one brought down his sack to the earth. And each one opened his sack.
Gen 44:12 And he searched, with the oldest first, and with the youngest last, and the cup was found in the sack of Benjamin.
Gen 44:13 And they tore their clothes; and they each one loaded his ass and returned to the city.
Gen 44:14 And Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house, and he was still there. And they fell before him to the earth.
Gen 44:15 And Joseph said to them, What is this deed which you have done? Did you not know that a man like me would practice divination?
Gen 44:16 And Judah said, What can we say to my lord? What can we speak, and in what can we justify ourselves? God has found out the iniquity of your servants; behold, we are slaves to my lord, both we and he in whose hand the cup was found.
Gen 44:17 And he said, Far be it from me to do this. The man in whose hand the cup was found, he shall become a slave to me; and you go up in peace to your father.
Gen 44:18 And Judah came near to him and said, O my lord, please let your servant speak a word in the ears of my lord, and let not your anger glow on your servant, for you are like Pharaoh.
Gen 44:19 My lord asked his servants, saying, Is there a brother or a father to you?
Gen 44:20 And we said to my lord, An aged father is to us, and a young child of his old age; and his brother is dead; and he alone is left of his mother; and his father loves him.
Gen 44:21 And you said to your servants, Bring him down to me, and let me see him.
Gen 44:22 And we said to my lord, The youth is not able to leave his father; and if he should leave his father, he will die.
Gen 44:23 And you said to your servants, If your youngest brother does not come down with you, you shall not see my face any more.
Gen 44:24 And it happened, when we had gone up to your servant, my father, we told him the words of my lord.
Gen 44:25 And our father said, Go back, buy a little food for us.
Gen 44:26 And we said, We cannot go down. If our youngest brother is with us, we will go down. For we cannot see the face of the man if our youngest brother is not with us.
Gen 44:27 And your servant, my father, said to us, You know that my wife bore two to me.
Gen 44:28 And one went out from me. And I said, Indeed, torn he is torn in pieces; and I have not seen him until now.
Gen 44:29 And if you take this one also from my face, and harm happen to him, you will bring down my gray hair to the grave in sorrow.
Gen 44:30 And now when I come to your servant, my father, and the youth is not with us and his soul being bound to his soul,
Gen 44:31 it will be when he sees that the youth is not, he will die. And your servants will bring down the gray hair of your servant our father to the grave in sorrow.
Gen 44:32 For your servant was surety for the youth with my father, saying, If I do not bring him to you, I shall be a sinner against my father all the days.
Gen 44:33 And now please let your servant remain as a slave to my lord instead of the youth; and let the youth go up with his brothers.
Gen 44:34 For how can I go to my father, and the youth not be with me, lest I look on the evil which will find my father?

Genesis 43

Gen 43:1 And the famine was severe in the land.
Gen 43:2 And it happened, when they had finished eating the grain which they had brought from Egypt, their father said to them, Go back; buy a little food for us.
Gen 43:3 And Judah spoke to him, saying, The man fiercely protested, saying to us, You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you.
Gen 43:4 And if you are sending our brother with us, we will go down and buy food for you.
Gen 43:5 And if you are not sending, we will not go; for the man said to us, You shall not see my face unless your brother is with you.
Gen 43:6 And Israel said, Why did you do evil to me to tell the man you still had a brother?
Gen 43:7 And they said, The man keenly asked about us and about our kindred, saying, Is your father still alive? Is there a brother to you? And we said to him on the mouth of these words. Could we know certainly that he would say, Bring down your brother?
Gen 43:8 And Judah said to his father Israel, Send the youth with me, and let us rise up and go, and we may live and not die, both we, and you, and our little ones.
Gen 43:9 I will be surety for him; you may require him from my hand. If I do not bring him to you and set him before you, I shall be a sinner against you all the days.
Gen 43:10 If we had not delayed, truly now we would have returned this twice.
Gen 43:11 And their father Israel said to them, If it be so, then do this: take from the produce of the land in your vessels and bring down a present to the man, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts and almonds.
Gen 43:12 And take double silver in your hand, and the silver they put back in the mouth of your sacks, take back in your hand; perhaps it was an oversight.
Gen 43:13 And take your brother and rise up; return to the man.
Gen 43:14 And may God Almighty give mercy to you before the man; and may he send your other brother to you, and Benjamin. And I, if am bereaved, I am bereaved.
Gen 43:15 And the men took this present, and they took double silver in their hand, and Benjamin. And they rose up and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.
Gen 43:16 And Joseph saw Benjamin with them. And he said to the one over his house, Bring the men into the house and slaughter and prepare an animal; for the men shall eat with me at noon.
Gen 43:17 And the man did as Joseph said. And the man brought the men into Joseph’s house.
Gen 43:18 And the men were afraid because they were brought into Joseph’s house. And they said, Because of the silver that was returned in our sacks before, we are being brought in, to throw himself on us and to fall on us, and to take us and our asses for slaves.
Gen 43:19 And they came near to the man who was over Joseph’s house and spoke to him at the door of the house.
Gen 43:20 And they said, Oh my lord, coming we came down to buy food.
Gen 43:21 And it happened, when we came to the camp and opened our sacks, behold, the silver of each one was in the mouth of his sack; our silver in its weight. And we bring it back in our hand.
Gen 43:22 And we have brought other silver in our hand to buy food. We do not know who put our silver in our sacks.
Gen 43:23 And he said, Peace to you; do not fear; your God and the God of your father has given a treasure to you in your sacks; your silver came to me. And he brought Simeon out to them.
Gen 43:24 And the man led out the men to Joseph’s house. And he gave water, and they washed their feet. And he gave fodder for their asses.
Gen 43:25 And they prepared the present for the coming of Joseph at noon. For they had heard that they would eat bread there.
Gen 43:26 And Joseph came into the house. And they brought the present in their hand to him, into the house. And they bowed to him, to the earth.
Gen 43:27 And he asked them of their welfare, and said, Is there peace to your father, the old man of whom you spoke? Is he still alive?
Gen 43:28 And they said, Peace is to your servant, to our father; he still lives. And they fell down and bowed.
Gen 43:29 And he raised his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, the son of his mother. And he said, Is this your youngest brother of whom you spoke to me? And he said, May God favor you, my son.
Gen 43:30 And Joseph hurried, for his emotions were deeply moved toward his brother. And he sought a place to weep; and he came into the inner room and wept there.
Gen 43:31 And he washed his face and controlled himself, and went out and said, Set out bread.
Gen 43:32 And they set out for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians eating with him by themselves. For the Egyptians cannot eat bread with the Hebrews; for it is an abomination in Egypt.
Gen 43:33 And they sat before him, the first-born according to his birthright, and the younger according to his youth. And the men were astonished, each to his neighbor.
Gen 43:34 And one carried portions from before him to them, and Benjamin’s portion was greater than the portions of all of them, five hands. And they drank and were drunken with him.

Genesis 42

Gen 42:1 And Jacob saw that grain was in Egypt. And Jacob said to his sons, Why do you look at each other?
Gen 42:2 And he said, Behold! I have heard grain is in Egypt. Go down there and buy for us from there, that we may live and not die.
Gen 42:3 And Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt.
Gen 42:4 And Jacob did not send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with his brothers, for he said, Lest harm meet with him.
Gen 42:5 And among those coming, the sons of Israel came to buy. For the famine was in land of Canaan.
Gen 42:6 And Joseph was the potentate over the land, the one selling to all the people of the earth. And Joseph’s brothers came in and bowed to him, face down to the earth.
Gen 42:7 And Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them; but he remained a stranger to them and spoke harsh things to them, and said to them, From where have you come? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food.
Gen 42:8 And Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.
Gen 42:9 And Joseph remembered the dreams which he had dreamed about them. And he said to them, You are spies! You have come in to see the bareness of the land.
Gen 42:10 And they said to him, No, my lord, but your servants have come to buy food.
Gen 42:11 We are all of us sons of one man; we are honest; your servants are not spies.
Gen 42:12 And he said to them, No, but you have come to see the bareness of the land.
Gen 42:13 And they said, Your servants are twelve brothers; we are sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and, lo, the youngest is with our father today; and one is not.
Gen 42:14 And Joseph said to them, This is that which I have spoken to you, saying, You are spies!
Gen 42:15 By this you shall be tested. As Pharaoh lives you shall not go out from here except your younger brother comes in here.
Gen 42:16 Send one of you and let him bring your brother; and you be bound, and let your words be proven, whether truth is with you. And if not, as Pharaoh lives, surely you are spies.
Gen 42:17 And he gathered them into custody three days.
Gen 42:18 And on the third day Joseph said to them, Do this and live. I fear God.
Gen 42:19 If you are honest, let one of your brothers be bound in your prison house, and you go bring grain for the famine of your houses.
Gen 42:20 And you bring your youngest brother to me, and let your words be true, and you shall not die. And so they did.
Gen 42:21 And they said each to his brother, We are truly guilty because of our brother whom we saw in distress of his soul, when he begged us, and we did not hear. So this distress has come to us.
Gen 42:22 And Reuben replied to them, saying, Did I not speak to you, saying, Do not sin against the youth, and you did not listen? And, behold, his blood is also required.
Gen 42:23 And they did not know that Joseph heard, for the interpreter was between them.
Gen 42:24 And he turned away from them and wept, and returned to them and spoke to them. And he took Simeon from them and bound him before their eyes.
Gen 42:25 And Joseph commanded, and they filled their vessels with grain and returned their silver, each into his sack, and gave to them food for the way; and he did so to them.
Gen 42:26 And they lifted their grain on their asses and walked from there.
Gen 42:27 And one opened his sack to give fodder to his ass in the camp, and he saw his silver. And, behold! It was in the mouth of his sack!
Gen 42:28 And he said to his brothers, My silver has been put back, and also look in my sack. And their hearts went out, and they were each terrified, saying to his brother, What is this God has done to us?
Gen 42:29 And they came to their father Jacob to the land of Canaan. And they told him all that met them, saying,
Gen 42:30 The man, the lord of the land, spoke harsh things to us and considered us as spies in the land.
Gen 42:31 And we said to him, We are honest; we are not spies.
Gen 42:32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; the one is not, and the youngest is with our father today in the land of Canaan.
Gen 42:33 And the man, the lord of the land, said to us, By this I shall know that you are honest; leave your one brother with me, and take and go for the famine of your houses.
Gen 42:34 And bring your youngest brother to me, and I may know that you are not spies, but you are honest. I will give your brother to you and you may trade in the land.
Gen 42:35 And it happened. They were emptying their sacks, and, behold, each one’s bundle of silver was in his sack; and they saw the bundles of their silver, and they were afraid.
Gen 42:36 And their father Jacob said to them, You have bereaved me. Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and you will take Benjamin? All of these are against me.
Gen 42:37 And Reuben spoke to his father, saying, You may kill my two sons if I do not bring him to you. Give him into my hand, and I will return him to you.
Gen 42:38 And he said, My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he alone is left. And if harm should happen to him in the way in which you go, you would bring down my gray hair in sorrow to the grave.

Genesis 41

Gen 41:1 And it happened at the end of two years of days, Pharaoh was dreaming. And, lo, he was standing by the River.
Gen 41:2 And, behold! Seven cows were going up from the River, beautiful of appearance and fat of flesh; and they were feeding in the reeds.
Gen 41:3 And, behold, seven other cows were going up after them from the River, evil of appearance and lean of flesh. And they were standing beside the cows on the lip of the River.
Gen 41:4 And the evil-appearing and lean-fleshed cows were eating the seven cows of beautiful and fat appearance. And Pharaoh awoke.
Gen 41:5 And he slept and dreamed a second time. And, behold, seven ears of grain were coming up on one stalk, fat and good.
Gen 41:6 And, behold, seven ears of grain, being lean and blasted by the east wind, sprouting forth after them.
Gen 41:7 And the seven lean ears were swallowing the seven fat and full ears. And Pharaoh awakened; and, lo, it was a dream.
Gen 41:8 And it happened in the morning, his spirit was troubled. And he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all its wise men. And Pharaoh told them his dream, and there was no interpreter of them to Pharaoh.
Gen 41:9 And the chief of the cupbearers spoke with Pharaoh, saying, I mention my sin today.
Gen 41:10 Pharaoh was angry against his servants, and gave me into custody in the house of the chief of the executioners, me and the chief of the bakers.
Gen 41:11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, he and I; we each dreamed according to the interpretation of his dream.
Gen 41:12 And a Hebrew youth was with us, a slave to the chief of the executioners. And we told him, and he interpreted our dreams to us; he interpreted to each according to his dream.
Gen 41:13 And it happened, as he had interpreted to us, so it was; he returned me to my position, and he hanged him.
Gen 41:14 And Pharaoh sent and called Joseph; and they rushed him from the dungeon. And he shaved and changed his clothing and came in to Pharaoh.
Gen 41:15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I have dreamed a dream, and there is no one to interpret it; and I have heard about you, saying, you hear a dream to interpret it.
Gen 41:16 And Joseph replied to Pharaoh, saying, Not I! God will answer the well-being of Pharaoh.
Gen 41:17 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, In my dream, lo, I was standing on the lip of the River.
Gen 41:18 And, behold, seven cows were going up from the River, fat of flesh and beautiful of form, and were feeding in the reeds.
Gen 41:19 And, behold, seven other cows were going up after them, poor and very evil of form, and lean of flesh; I have not seen any like them in all the land of Egypt for badness.
Gen 41:20 And the cows, the lean and the evil, ate the first seven fat cows.
Gen 41:21 And they went into their stomachs, and it could not be seen that they had gone into their stomachs; and their appearance was as evil as at the beginning. And I awakened.
Gen 41:22 And I looked in my dream. And, behold, seven ears of grain were coming up on one stalk, full and good.
Gen 41:23 And, behold, seven ears, withered, lean, blasted by the east wind, sprouting forth after them.
Gen 41:24 And the lean ears were swallowing the seven good ears. And I spoke to the magicians, but not one is making known the meaning to me.
Gen 41:25 And Joseph said to Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is one. God has shown Pharaoh what He is about to do.
Gen 41:26 The seven good cows, they are seven years and the seven good ears, they are seven years; it is one dream.
Gen 41:27 And the seven thin and evil-appearing cows going up after them, they are seven years; and the seven empty ears blasted by the east wind will be seven years of famine.
Gen 41:28 This is the word that I spoke to Pharaoh: what God is about to do, He has made Pharaoh see.
Gen 41:29 Behold! Seven years of great plenty are coming in all the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:30 And seven years of famine will arise after them and all the plenty of the land of Egypt will be forgotten; and the famine will consume the land.
Gen 41:31 And the plenty in the land will not be remembered because of that famine afterwards; for it will be very severe.
Gen 41:32 And as to the dream being repeated to Pharaoh twice, the thing is settled because it is from God, and God is hastening to do it.
Gen 41:33 And now let Pharaoh look for a man who is intelligent and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:34 Let Pharaoh act and let him appoint rulers over the land and take a fifth of the land of Egypt in the seven years of plenty.
Gen 41:35 And let them gather all the food of these coming good years. And let them heap up grain under Pharaoh’s hand as food in the cities, and let them keep it.
Gen 41:36 And let the food be for a store for the land, for the seven years of famine which will be in the land of Egypt and let not the land be cut off by famine.
Gen 41:37 And the word was good in Pharaoh’s eyes, and in the eyes of all his servants.
Gen 41:38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, Can we find any man like this, in whom is the Spirit of God?
Gen 41:39 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Since God has taught you all this, there is no one wise and intelligent like you.
Gen 41:40 You shall be over my house, and at your mouth all my people shall kiss the hand. Only in respect to the throne will I be greater than you.
Gen 41:41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Behold, I have put you over all the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand and put it on the hand of Joseph; and he clothed him with fine linen robes, and put a golden chain on his neck.
Gen 41:43 And he caused him to ride in a chariot which was the second to him. And they cried before him, Bow the knee! And he put him over all the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:44 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without a word from you not a man shall lift his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:45 And Pharaoh called Joseph by the name of Zaphnath-paaneah. And He gave him Asenath the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On, for a wife. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:46 And Joseph was a son of thirty years as he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the face of Pharaoh and passed over in all the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:47 And the land produced by handfuls in the seven years of plenty.
Gen 41:48 And he gathered all the food of the seven years which were in the land of Egypt, and he put food in the cities, the food of the field which is around each city he put into the middle of it.
Gen 41:49 And Joseph heaped up grain like the sand of the sea, exceedingly much, until he ceased to count it, because it was without number.
Gen 41:50 And two sons were born to Joseph before the year of the famine came in, whom Asenath the daughter of Potipherah, priest of On, bore to him.
Gen 41:51 And Joseph called the name of the first-born Manasseh; for he said, God has made me forget all my toil, and all the house of my father.
Gen 41:52 And the name of the second he called Ephraim; for he said, God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.
Gen 41:53 And the seven years of plenty which were in the land of Egypt were ended.
Gen 41:54 And the seven years of famine began to come, according as Joseph had said. And the famine was in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread.
Gen 41:55 And all the land of Egypt hungered and the people cried to Pharaoh for bread. And Pharaoh said to all Egypt, Go to Joseph; what he says to you, do.
Gen 41:56 And the famine was on the face of all the land. And Joseph opened all which was in them, and sold to the Egyptians. And the famine was strong in the land of Egypt.
Gen 41:57 And all the earth came to Egypt to buy, to Joseph. For the famine was strong in all the earth.

Jubilee (Christian)

Jubilee (Christian)

The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. In the Biblical book of Leviticus, a Jubilee year is mentioned to occur every fifty years, in which slaves and prisoners would be freed, debts would be forgiven and the mercies of God would be particularly manifest. In Christianity, the tradition dates to 1300, when Pope Boniface VIII convoked a holy year. Christian Jubilees, particularly in the Catholic tradition, generally involve pilgrimage to a sacred site, normally the city of Rome. At various times in Church history, they have been celebrated every 50 or 25 years.

1 “Pre-History” of the Christian Jubilee
2 The first Christian jubilee
3 The Jubilee of 1350
4 The Jubilees of 1390 and 1423
5 Subsequent Jubilees
6 The “Great Jubilee” of 2000
7 Ceremonial of the Jubilee
8 The Jubilee Indulgence
9 List of Known Jubilee Years
10 See also

“Pre-History” of the Christian Jubilee
The year of Jubilee in both the Jewish and Christian traditions is a time of joy, the year of remission or universal pardon. In Mosiac law, each fiftieth year was to be celebrated as a jubilee year, and that at this season every household should recover its absent members, the land return to its former owners, the Hebrew slaves be set free, and debts be remitted (see Jubilee (Biblical)).

The same conception, spiritualized, forms the fundamental idea of the Christian Jubilee, though it is difficult to judge how far any sort of continuity can have existed between the two. It is commonly stated that Pope Boniface VIII instituted the first Christian Jubilee in the year 1300, and it is certain that this is the first celebration of which we have any precise record, but it is also certain that the idea of solemnizing a fiftieth anniversary was familiar to medieval writers, no doubt through their knowledge of the Bible, long before that date. The jubilee of a monk’s religious profession was often kept, and probably some vague memory survived of those Roman ludi saeculares which are commemorated in the “Carmen Saeculare” of Horace, even though this last was commonly associated with a period of a hundred years rather than any lesser interval. But, what is most noteworthy, the number fifty was specially associated in the early thirteenth century with the idea of remission. The translation of the body St. Thomas of Canterbury took place in the year 1220, fifty years after his martyrdom. The sermon on that occasion was preached by Stephen Cardinal Lantron, who told his hearers that this coincidence was meant by Providence to recall “the mystical virtue of the number fifty, which, as every reader of the sacred page is aware, is the number of remission.”

We might be tempted to regard this discourse as a fabrication of later date, were it not for the fact that a Latin hymn directed against the Albigenses, and certainly belonging to the early thirteenth century, speaks in exactly similar terms. The first stanza runs thus:

Anni favor jubilaei
Poenarum laxat debitum,
Post peccatorum vomitum
Et cessandi propositum.
Currant passim omnes rei.
Pro mercede regnum Dei
Levi patet expositum.
(The blessing of the year of jubilee releases the obligation of punishments. After sinners have been purged, the cause against them ends. All the guilty go free by the mercy of God’s kingdom, as set forth in the law of Levi.)
In the light of this explicit mention of a jubilee with great remissions of the penalties of sin to be obtained by full confession and purpose of amendment, it seems difficult to reject the statement of Cardinal Stefaneschi, the contemporary and counsellor of Pope Boniface VIII, and author of a treatise on the first Jubilee, that the proclamation of the Jubilee owed its origin to the statements of certain aged pilgrims who persuaded Boniface that great indulgences had been granted to all pilgrims in Rome about a hundred years before. It is also noteworthy that in the Chronicle of Alberic of Three Fountains, under the year 1208 (not, be it noted 1200), we find this brief entry: “It is said that this year was celebrated as the fiftieth year, or the year of jubilee and remission, in the Roman Court.”

The first Christian jubilee
It is beyond all dispute that on February 22, 1300, Boniface published the Bull “Antiquorum fida relatio”, in which, appealing vaguely the precedent of past ages, he declares that he grants afresh and renews certain “great remissions and indulgences for sins” which are to be obtained “by visiting the city of Rome and the venerable basilica of the Prince of the Apostles”. Coming to more precise detail, he specifies that he concedes “not only full and copious, but the most full, pardon of all their sins”, to those who fulfill certain conditions. These are, first, that being truly penitent they confess their sins, and secondly, that they visit the basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul in Rome, at least once a day for a specified time–in the case of the inhabitants of the city for thirty days, in the case of strangers for fifteen.

No explicit mention is made of Communion as a requirement to receive the indulgence, nor does the word jubilee occur in the Bull–indeed the pope speaks rather of a celebration which is to occur every hundred years–but writers both Roman and foreign described this year as annus jubileus, and the name jubilee (though others, such as the “holy year” or “the golden year” have been used as well) has been applied to such celebrations ever since. Dante, who is himself supposed by some to have visited Rome during this year to gain the Jubilee indulgence, refers to it under the name Giubbileo in the Inferno and indirectly bears witness to the enormous concourse of pilgrims by comparing the sinners passing along one of the bridges of Malebolge in opposite directions, to the throngs crossing the bridge of the Castel Sant’Angelo on their way to and from St. Peter’s. Similarly, the chronicler Villani was so impressed on this occasion by the sight of the monuments of Rome and the people who flocked thither that he then and there formed the resolution of his great chronicle, in the course of which he gives a remarkable account of what he witnessed.

Villani describes the indulgence connected with this jubilee as a full and entire remission of all sins di culpa e di pena (Italian: of guilt and of punishment), and he dwells upon the great contentment and good order of the people, despite the fact that during the greater part of that year there were two hundred thousand pilgrims on an average present in Rome over and above the ordinary population. With regard to the phrase just noticed, a culpa et a poena (in Latin), which was often popularly used of the Jubilee and other similar indulgences, it should be observed that it means no more than what is now understood by a “plenary indulgence”. It implied, however, that any approved Roman confessor had faculties to absolve from reserved cases (sins whose forgiveness can only be granted by certain priests), and that the liberty thus virtually accorded of selecting a confessor was regarded as a privilege. The phrase was an unscientific one, and was not commonly used by theologians. It certainly did not mean, as some have pretended, that the indulgence of itself released from guilt (which could be punished by Hell) as well as penalty (for sins already forgiven, usually removed in Purgatory). Guilt is actually remitted in the Catholic Church only in virtue of sacramental confession and the sorrow of the penitent. The sovereign pontiff never claimed any power of absolving in grievous matters apart from the sacrament. “All theologians”, remarks Maldonatus, “unanimously without a single exception, reply that an indulgence is not a remission of guilt but of the penalty.”

The Jubilee of 1350
As we have seen, Boniface VIII had intended that the Jubilee should be celebrated only once in a hundred years, but some time before the middle of the fourteenth century, great urgings, in which St. Birgitta of Sweden and the poet Petrarch amongst others had some share, were made to Pope Clement VI, then residing at Avignon, to anticipate this term, particularly on the ground that the average span of human life was so short as otherwise to render it impossible for many to hope to see any Jubilee in their own generation. Clement VI assented, and in 1350 accordingly, a Jubilee was held, though the pope did not return to Rome himself. Gaetani Cardinal Ceccano was dispatched thither to represent His Holiness at the Jubilee. On this occasion daily visits to the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano were enjoined, besides those to the basilicas of St. Peter and St. Paul outside the Walls, while at the next Jubilee, (in 1390) the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore was added to the list. The visit to these four churches has remained ever since as one of the primary conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee indulgence.

The Jubilees of 1390 and 1423
The celebration next following was held in 1390, and in virtue of an ordinance of Pope Urban VI, it was proposed to hold a Jubilee every thirty-three years as representing the period of the sojourn of Christ upon earth and also the average span of human life. In 1400, so many people came to Rome, that Pope Boniface IX granted the indulgence again, even though he had not decreed a Jubilee year previously.

Another Jubilee was proclaimed by Pope Martin V in 1423 (33 years after the last proclaimed Jubilee in 1390), but Pope Nicholas V, in 1450, reverted to the quinquagesimal period, while Pope Paul II decreed that the Jubilee should be celebrated every twenty-five years, and this has been the normal rule ever since.

Subsequent Jubilees
The Jubilees of 1450 and 1475 were attended by vast crowds of pilgrims, and that of 1450 was unfortunately made famous by a terrible accident in which nearly two hundred persons were trampled to death in a panic which occurred on the bridge of Sant’ Angelo. But even this disaster had its good effects in the pains taken afterwards to widen the thoroughfares and to provide for the entertainment and comfort of the pilgrims by numerous charitable organizations, of which the Archconfraternity of the Holy Trinity, founded by St. Philip Neri, was the most famous.

Innumerable witnesses have pointed to the great moral renovation produced by these celebrations. The testimony comes in many cases from the most unexceptionable sources, and it extends from the days of Pope Boniface VIII to the striking account given by Cardinal Wiseman of the only Jubilee held in the nineteenth century, that of 1825. The omission of the Jubilees of 1800 and 1850 was due to political disturbances. Pope Pius IX announced a Jubilee for 1875, but it was celebrated without any external solemnity, with only the clergy present for the inauguration. The holy doors were not opened, and the pilgrims who came were generally in Rome to do homage to the Pope, who had not accepted the Italian annexation of Rome, rather than to obtain an indulgence. Nonetheless, with these exceptions the celebration has been uniformly maintained every twenty-five years from 1450 until the twentieth century. The Jubilee of 1900, though shorn of much of its splendour by the confinement of the Holy Father within the limits of the Vatican, was, nevertheless carried out by Pope Leo XIII with all the solemnity that was possible.

In the twentieth century, Jubilees were held in 1925, 1933 (in commemoration of Jesus’ death), 1950, 1975, 1983 (Holy Year of the Redemption) and 2000.

Pope Pius XII used the occasion of the 1950 jubilee to declare a new national anthem for the Vatican City.

The “Great Jubilee” of 2000

The official logo of the Great Jubilee of 2000 features its motto: Christ Yesterday, Today, Forever.Main Article: Great Jubilee

Pope John Paul II announced a Great Jubilee for the year 2000 with his Apostolic Letter Tertio Millennio Adveniente (As the Third Millennium Approaches) of November 10, 1994. In this writing, he called for a three-year preparation period leading up to the opening of the Great Jubilee in December 1999. The first year, 1997, was to be dedicated to meditation on Jesus, the second to the Holy Spirit, and the third to God the Father. This Jubilee was especially marked by a simplification of the rites and the requirements for achieving the indulgence, as well as a huge effort to involve more Christians in the celebration.

Protestant Churches and the Orthodox were invited to celebrate the Jubilee together with the Catholics as a sign of ecumenical dialogue. Furthermore, special Jubilees were invoked for various groups within the Church, such as children, athletes, politicians, and actors. World Youth Day, celebrated in Rome in August, brought over two million young people together.

The Jubilee was closed by the pope on January 6, 2001, by the closing of the holy door of St. Peter’s and the promulgation of the Apostolic Letter Novo Millennio Ineunte (Upon Entering the New Millennium), which outlined the pope’s vision for the future of the Church.

Ceremonial of the Jubilee
The most distinctive feature in the ceremonial of the Jubilee is the unwalling and the final walling up of the “holy door” in each of the four great basilicas which the pilgrims are required to visit. The doors are opened by the Pope at the beginning of the Jubilee and then sealed up again afterwards. Previously, the rite included the use of a silver hammer (for removing the concrete at the opening) and a silver trowel (for sealing it again after the Jubilee), however, in the Great Jubilee of 2000, Pope John Paul II simplified the rite considerably, opening and closing the doors with his hands.

Traditionally, the Pope himself opens and closes the doors of St. Peter’s Basilica personally, and designates a cardinal to open those of St. John Lateran, St. Mary Major, and St. Paul outside the Walls. In the Great Jubilee, the Pope chose to open all the doors personally, while designating cardinals to close all the doors except that of St. Peter’s.

The Jubilee Indulgence
This is a plenary indulgence which, as stated by Pope Boniface VIII in Consistory, it is the intention of the Holy See to grant in the most ample manner possible. Of course, when first conceded, such an indulgence, and also the privilege annexed of choosing a confessor who had power to absolve from reserved cases, was a much rarer spiritual boon than it has since become. So preeminent was the favor then regarded that the custom arose of suspending all other indulgences during the Jubilee year, a practice which, with certain modifications, still exists to the present day. The precise conditions for gaining each Jubilee indulgence are determined by the Roman pontiff, and they are usually announced in a special Bull, distinct from that which it is customary to issue on the preceding feast of the Ascension giving notice of the forthcoming celebration. The main conditions, however, which do not usually vary, are five: confession, Communion, prayer for the Pope, complete renunciation of all attachment to sin, and visits to the four basilicas during a certain specified period. (The first four are common to all plenary indulgences.) The statement made by some, that the Jubilee indulgence, being a culpa et a paena, did not of old presuppose either confession or repentance, is absolutely without foundation, and is contradicted by every official document preserved to us. Besides the ordinary Jubilee indulgence, to be gained only by pilgrims who pay a visit to Rome, or through special concession by certain cloistered religious confined within their monasteries, it has long been customary to extend this indulgence the following year to the faithful throughout the world, though in 2000, the indulgence was extended to the whole world during the Jubilee year itself. For this, fresh conditions are appointed, usually including a certain number of visits to local churches and sometimes fasting or other works of charity. Further, the popes have constantly exercised their prerogative of conceding to all the faithful indulgences ad instar jubilaei (after the model of a Jubilee) which are commonly known as “extraordinary Jubilees”. On these occasions, as at the Jubilee itself, special facilities are usually accorded for absolution from reserved cases, though on the other hand, the great indulgence is only to be gained by the performance of conditions much more onerous than those required for an ordinary plenary indulgence. Such extraordinary Jubilees are commonly granted by a newly elected pontiff at his accession or on occasions of some unexpected celebration, as was done, for example, at the convening of the First Vatican Council, or again at times of great calamity.

Pope John Paul II convoked Jubilees in 1983 (Holy Year of the Redemption) and in 2000 (the Great Jubilee). In 2000, he greatly liberalized the conditions for gaining the Jubilee indulgence. A visit to only one of the four patriarchal basilicas in Rome was necessary (entering through the holy door). To the four baslicas were added the Sanctuary of Divine Love in Rome, and each diocese was permitted to name a location within the diocese where the indulgence could be gained. For instance, the diocese of Rome added the chapel in the airport at Fiumicino as a possible pilgrimage site. Most dioceses simply named the local cathedral as the pilgrimage site. There was no requirement for multiple visits. On the last full day of the Jubilee, pilgrims were permitted to enter the holy door at St. Peter’s until late into the night, so that no one would be denied the opportunity to gain the indulgence. The requirements of confession, Communion, prayer for the Pope and freedom from all attachment to sin remained in place, as for all plenary indulgences.

List of Known Jubilee Years
1300 : Pope Boniface VIII
1350 : Pope Clement VI
1390 : decreed by Pope Urban VI, presided by Pope Boniface IX
1400 : Pope Boniface IX
1423 : Pope Martin V
1450 : Pope Nicholas V
1475 : decreed by Pope Paul II, presided by Pope Sixtus IV
1500 : Pope Alexander VI
1525 : Pope Clement VII
1550 : decreed by Pope Paul III, presided by Julius III
1575 : Pope Gregory XIII
1600 : Pope Clement VIII
1625 : Pope Urban VIII
1650 : Pope Innocent X
1675 : Pope Clement X
1700 : decreed by Pope Innocent XII, presided by Pope Clement XI
1725 : Pope Benedict XIII
1750 : Pope Benedict XIV
1775 : decreed by Pope Clement XIV, presided by Pope Pius VI
1825 : Pope Leo XII
1875 : Pope Pius IX (without great solemnity)
1900 : Pope Leo XIII
1925 : Pope Pius XI
1933 : Pope Pius XI
1950 : Pope Pius XII
1975 : Pope Paul VI
1983 : Pope John Paul II
2000 : Pope John Paul II
Initial text from 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, with considerable editing

Introduction to Deuteronomy

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of Deuteronomy

The Hebrew name of the book is -elleh haddebarim (“These are the words” ) or, more simply, debarim (“words” ; see 1:1). The word “Deuteronomy” (meaning “repetition of the law” ) arose from a mistranslation in the Septuagint (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT) and the Latin Vulgate of a phrase in Dt 17:18, which in Hebrew means “copy of this law.” The error is not serious, however, since Deuteronomy is, in a certain sense, a “repetition of the law” (see Structure and Outline).

Author and Date of Writing
The book itself ascribes most of its content to Moses (see 1:1,5; 31:24 and notes). For that reason, the OT elsewhere ascribes the bulk of Deuteronomy and other Pentateuchal legislation to Moses (see, e.g., Jos 1:7-8; 23:6; 1Ki 2:3; 8:53; Mal 4:4 and notes). Similarly Jesus attributed Dt 24:1 to Moses (Mt 19:7-8; Mk 10:3-5), Peter attributed Dt 18:15,18-19 to Moses (Ac 3:22-23), as did Stephen (see Ac 7:37-38 and notes), and Paul attributed Dt 32:21 to Moses (Ro 10:19). See also Mt 22:24 and note; Mk 12:18-19; Lk 20:27-28. At the same time, it seems clear that the narrative framework within which the Mosaic material is placed (e.g., the preamble [1:1-5] and the conclusion [ch. 34]; see also 5:1; 27:1,9,11; 29:1-2; 31:1,7,9-10, 14-25,30; 32:44-46,48-52; 33:1-2) comes from another- and unknown- hand. See Introduction to Genesis: Author and Date of Writing.

Historical Setting
Deuteronomy locates Moses and the Israelites in the territory of Moab in the area where the Jordan flows into the Dead Sea (1:5). As his final act at this important time of transferring leadership to Joshua, Moses delivered his farewell addresses to prepare the people for their entrance into Canaan. In them, Moses emphasized the laws that were especially needed at such a time, and he presented them in a way appropriate to the situation. In contrast to the matter-of-fact narratives of Leviticus and Numbers, here the words of Moses come to us from his heart as this servant of the Lord presses God’s claims on his people Israel.

Special Function in the Bible
The trajectory of the story that unfolds in Genesis-Numbers seems to call for an account of the conquest of Canaan as found in Joshua to bring closure to the movement from promise to fulfillment (see Introduction to Joshua: Title and Theme). But Deuteronomy intervenes as a massive interruption. Here there is very little forward movement. At the end of Numbers, Israel is “on the plains of Moab by the Jordan across from Jericho” (Nu 36:33) and at the end of Deuteronomy, the people are still there (Dt 34:8) waiting to cross the Jordan (see Jos 1:2). All that has happened is the transition from the ministry of Moses as God’s spokesman and official representative to that of Joshua in his place (Dt 34:9; see Jos 1:1-2). But Moses’ final acts as the Lord’s appointed servant for dealing with Israel are so momentous that Deuteronomy’s account of them marks the conclusion to the Pentateuch, while the book of Joshua, which narrates the initial fulfillment of the promises made to the patriarchs and the conclusion to the mission on which Moses had been sent (see Nu 17:15-23; Jos 21:43-45), serves as the introduction to the Former Prophets.

So Deuteronomy creates a long pause in the advancement of the story of redemption:

of deliverance from bondage to a world power (Egypt) to a place in the earth where Israel can be a free people under the rule of God;
of deliverance from rootlessness in the post-Babel world (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) to security and “rest” (see Dt 3:20 and note; 12:10; 25:19) in the promised land;
of deliverance from a life of banishment from God’s Garden (Ge 3) to a life in the Lord’s own land where he has pitched his tent (Jos 22:19).

But in that long pause on the threshold of the promised land Moses, in this renewal of the Sinaitic covenant, reminded Israel at length of what the Lord required of them as his people if they were to cross the Jordan, take possession of the promised land and there enjoy the promised “rest” in fellowship with him. It was a word that Israel needed to hear over and over again. Upon reading the Pentateuch, Israel was brought ever anew to the threshold of the promised land and its promised “rest” to hear again this final word from God through his servant Moses (see also Ps 95:7b-22). For this reason, all the history of Israel in Canaan as narrated in the Former Prophets is brought under the judgment of this word.

Theological Teaching and Purpose
The book of Deuteronomy was cast in the form of ancient Near Eastern suzerainty-vassal treaties of the second millennium b.c. It contained the Great King’s pledge to be Israel’s Suzerain and Protector if they would be faithful to him as their covenant Lord and obedient to the covenant stipulations as the vassal people of his kingdom. There would be blessings for such obedience, but curses for disobedience (chs. 27-30). Deuteronomy’s purpose was to prepare the new generation of the Lord’s chosen people to be his kingdom representatives in the land he had unconditionally promised them in the Abrahamic covenant (see Structure and Outline below; see also notes on 3:27; 17:14,18).

The love relationship of the Lord to his people, and that of the people to the Lord as their sovereign God, pervade the whole book. Deuteronomy’s spiritual emphasis and its call to total commitment to the Lord in worship and obedience inspired references to its message throughout the rest of Scripture. In particular, the division of the Hebrew Bible called the Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings) is thoroughly imbued with the style, themes and motifs of Deuteronomy. Among the Latter Prophets, Jeremiah also reflects strong influence from this book.

Structure and Outline
Deuteronomy’s literary structure supports its historical setting. By its interpretive, repetitious, reminiscent and somewhat irregular style it shows that it is a series of more or less extemporaneous addresses, sometimes describing events in nonchronological order (see, e.g., 10:3). But it also bears in its structure clear reflections of the suzerain-vassal treaties (see chart, p. 23) of the preceding and then-current Near Eastern states, a structure that lends itself to the Biblical emphasis on the covenant between the Lord and his people. In this sense Deuteronomy is a covenant renewal document, as the following outline shows:

Preamble (1:1-5)

Historical Prologue (1:6- 4:43)

Stipulations of the Covenant (4:44- 26:19)

The Great Commandment: The Demand for Absolute Allegiance (4:44- 11:32)

God’s covenant Lordship (4:44- 5:33)

The principle of consecration (ch. 6)

The program for conquering Canaan (ch. 7)

A call to commitment in the new land (ch. 8)

The lesson of the broken tablets (9:1- 10:11)

Another call to commitment (10:12- 11:32)

Supplementary Requirements (chs. 12-26)

Ceremonial consecration (12:1- 16:17)

Human leaders in God’s righteous kingdom (16:18- 21:21)

Sanctity of God’s kingdom (21:22- 25:19)

Confessions of God as Redeemer-King (ch. 26)

Ratification; Curses and Blessings (chs. 27-30)

Leadership Succession under the Covenant (chs. 31-34)

Change of Leadership (31:1-29)

Song of Moses (31:30- 32:47)

Moses’ Testamental Blessing on the Tribes (32:48- 33:29)

Death of Moses and Succession of Joshua (ch. 34)

Introduction to Numbers

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of Numbers

The English name of the book comes from the Septuagint (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT) and is based on the census lists found in chs. 1; 26. The Hebrew title of the book (bemidbar, “in the desert” ) is more descriptive of its contents. Numbers presents an account of the 38-year period of Israel’s wandering in the desert following the establishment of the covenant of Sinai (compare 1:1 with Dt 1:1).

Author and Date
The book has traditionally been ascribed to Moses. This conclusion is based on (1) statements concerning Moses’ writing activity (e.g., 33:1-2; Ex 17:14; 24:4; 34:27) and (2) the assumption that the first five books of the Bible, the Pentateuch, are a unit and come from one author. See Introduction to Genesis: Author and Date of Writing.

It is not necessary, however, to claim that Numbers came from Moses’ hand complete and in final form. Portions of the book were probably added by scribes or editors from later periods of Israel’s history. For example, the protestation of the humility of Moses (12:3) would hardly be convincing if it came from his own mouth. But it seems reasonable to assume that Moses wrote the essential content of the book.

Numbers relates the story of Israel’s journey from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on the border of Canaan. Much of its legislation for people and priests is similar to that in Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. The book tells of the murmuring and rebellion of God’s people and of their subsequent judgment. Those whom God had redeemed from slavery in Egypt and with whom he had made a covenant at Mount Sinai responded not with faith, gratitude and obedience but with unbelief, ingratitude and repeated acts of rebellion, which came to extreme expression in their refusal to undertake the conquest of Canaan (ch. 14). The community of the redeemed forfeited their part in the promised land. They were condemned to live out their lives in the desert; only their children would enjoy the fulfillment of the promise that had originally been theirs (cf. Heb 3:7- 4:11).

Theological Teaching
In telling the story of Israel’s desert wanderings, Numbers offers much that is theologically significant. During the first year after Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, the nation entered into covenant with the Lord at Sinai to be the people of his kingdom, among whom he pitched his royal tent (the tabernacle)- this is the story of Exodus. As the account of Numbers begins, the Lord organizes Israel into a military camp. Leaving Sinai, they march forth as his conquering army, with the Lord at the head, to establish his kingdom in the promised land in the midst of the nations. The book graphically portrays Israel’s identity as the Lord’s redeemed covenant people and its vocation as the servant people of God, charged with establishing his kingdom on earth. God’s purpose in history is implicitly disclosed: to invade the arena of fallen humanity and effect the redemption of his creation- the mission in which his people are also to be totally engaged.

Numbers also presents the chastening wrath of God against his disobedient people. Because of their rebellion (and especially the nation’s refusal to undertake the conquest of Canaan), Israel was in breach of covenant. The fourth book of the Pentateuch presents a sobering reality: The God who had entered into covenant with Abraham (Ge 15; 17), who had delivered his people from bondage in the exodus (Ex 14-15), who had brought Israel into covenant with himself as his “treasured possession” (Ex 19; see especially Ex 19:5) and who had revealed his holiness and the gracious means of approaching him(Lev 1-7) was also a God of wrath. His wrath extended to his errant children as well as to the enemy nations of Egypt and Canaan.

Even Moses, the great prophet and servant of the Lord, was not exempt from God’s wrath when he disobeyed God. Ch. 20, which records his error, begins with the notice of Miriam’s death (20:1) and concludes with the record of Aaron’s death (20:22-29). Here is the passing of the old guard. Those whom God has used to establish the nation are dying before the nation has come into its own.

The questions arise: Is God finished with the nation as a whole (cf. Ro 11:1)? Are his promises a thing of the past? In one of the most remarkable sections of the Bible- the account of Balaam, the pagan diviner (chs. 22-24)- the reply is given. The Lord, working in a providential and direct way, proclaims his continued faithfulness to his purpose for his people despite their unfaithfulness to him.

Balaam is Moab’s answer to Moses, the man of God. He is an internationally known prophet who shares the pagan belief that the God of Israel is like any other deity who might be manipulated by acts of magic or sorcery. But from the early part of the narrative, when Balaam first encounters the one true God in visions, and in the narrative of the journey on the donkey (ch. 22), he begins to learn that dealing with the true God is fundamentally different from anything he has ever known. When he attempts to curse Israel at the instigation of Balak king of Moab, Balaam finds his mouth unable to express the curse he desires to pronounce. Instead, from his lips come blessings on Israel and curses on its enemies (chs. 23-24).

In his seven prophetic oracles, Balaam proclaims God’s great blessing for his people (see 23:20). Though the immediate enjoyment of this blessing will always depend on the faithfulness of his people, the ultimate realization of God’s blessing is sure- because of the character of God (see 23:19). Thus Numbers reaffirms the ongoing purposes of God. Despite his judgment on his rebellious people, God is still determined to bring Israel into the land of promise. His blessing to Israel rests in his sovereign will.

The teaching of the book has lasting significance for Israel and for the church (cf. Ro 15:4; 1Co 10:6,11). God does display his wrath even against his errant people, but his grace is renewed as surely as is the dawn and his redemptive purpose will not be thwarted.

Special Problem
The large numbers of men conscripted into Israel’s army (see, e.g., the figures in 1:46; 26:51) have puzzled many interpreters. The numbers of men mustered for warfare seem to demand a total population in excess of 2,000,000. Such numbers appear to be exceedingly large for the times, for the locale, for the desert wanderings, and in comparison with the inhabitants of Canaan. See note on 3:43.

Various possibilities have been suggested to solve this problem. Some have thought that the numbers may have been corrupted in transmission. The present text, however, does not betray textual difficulties with the numbers.

Others have felt that the Hebrew word for “thousand” might have a different meaning here from its usual numerical connotation. In some passages, for example, the word is a technical term for a company of men that may or may not equal 1,000 (e.g., Jos 22:14, “family division” ; 1Sa 23:23, “clans” ). Further, some have postulated that this Hebrew word means “chief” (as in Ge 36:15). In this way the figure 53,400 (26:47) would mean “53 chiefs plus 400 men.” Such a procedure would yield a greatly reduced total, but it would be at variance with the fact that the Hebrew text adds the “thousands” in the same way it adds the “hundreds” for a large total. Also, this would make the proportion of chiefs to fighting men top-heavy (59 chiefs for 300 men in Simeon).

Another option is to read the Hebrew word for “thousand” with a dual meaning of “chief” and “1,000,” with the chiefs numbering one less than the stated figure. For example, the 46,500 of Reuben (1:20) is read as 45 chiefs and 1,500 fighting men, the 59,300 of Simeon (1:23) is read as 58 chiefs and 1,300 fighting men, etc. But in this case, as in the former, the totals of 1:46 and 2:32 must then be regarded as errors of understanding (perhaps by later scribes).

Still another approach is to regard the numbers as symbolic figures rather than as strictly mathematical. The numerical value of the Hebrew letters in the expression bene yisra’el (“the Israelite community,” 1:2) equals 603 (the number of the thousands of the fighting men, 1:46); the remaining 550 (plus 1 for Moses) might come from the numerical equivalent of the Hebrew letters in the expression “all the men . . . who are able to serve in the army” (1:3). This symbolic use of numbers (called “gematria” ) is not unknown in the Bible (see Rev 13:18), but it is not likely in Numbers, where there are no literary clues pointing in that direction. (For one more option [hyperbole] see note in 1Ch 12:23-27.)

While the problem of the large numbers has not been satisfactorily solved, the Bible does point to a remarkable increase of Jacob’s descendants during the four centuries of their sojourn in Egypt (see Ex 1:7-12). With all their difficulties, these numbers also point to the great role of providence and miracles in God’s dealings with his people during their life in the desert (see note on 1:46).

Structure and Outline
The book has three major divisions, based on Israel’s geographical locations. Each of the three divisions has two parts, as the following breakdown demonstrates: (1) Israel at Sinai, preparing to depart for the land of promise (1:1- 10:10), followed by the journey from Sinai to Kadesh (10:11- 12:16); (2) Israel at Kadesh, delayed as a result of rebellion (13:1- 20:13), followed by the journey from Kadesh to the plains of Moab (20:14- 22:1); (3) Israel on the plains of Moab, anticipating the conquest of the land of promise (22:2- 32:42), followed by appendixes dealing with various matters (chs. 33-36).

Israel at Sinai, Preparing to Depart for the Promised Land (1:1- 10:10)

The Commands for the Census of the People (chs. 1-4)

The numbers of men from each tribe mustered for war (ch. 1)

The placement of the tribes around the tabernacle and their order for march (ch. 2)

The placement of the Levites around the tabernacle, and the numbers of the Levites and the firstborn of Israel (ch. 3)

The numbers of the Levites in their tabernacle service for the Lord (ch. 4)

The Commands for Purity of the People (5:1- 10:10)

The test for purity in the law of jealousy (ch. 5)

The Nazirite vow and the Aaronic benediction (ch. 6)

The offerings of the 12 leaders at the dedication of the tabernacle (ch. 7)

The setting up of the lamps and the separation of the Levites (ch. 8)

The observance of the Passover (9:1-14)

The covering cloud and the silver trumpets (9:15- 10:10)

The Journey from Sinai to Kadesh (10:11- 12:16)

The Beginning of the Journey (10:11-36)

The Beginning of the Sorrows: Fire and Quail (ch. 11)

The Opposition of Miriam and Aaron (ch. 12)

Israel at Kadesh, the Delay Resulting from Rebellion (13:1- 20:13)

The 12 Spies and Their Mixed Report of the Good Land (ch. 13)

The People’s Rebellion against God’s Commission, and Their Defeat (ch. 14)

A Collection of Laws on Offerings, the Sabbath and Tassels on Garments (ch. 15)

The Rebellion of Korah and His Allies (ch. 16)

The Budding of Aaron’s Staff: A Sign for Rebels (ch. 17)

Concerning Priests, Their Duties and Their Support (ch. 18)

The Red Heifer and the Cleansing Water (ch. 19)

The Sin of Moses (20:1-13)

The Journey from Kadesh to the Plains of Moab (20:14- 22:1)

The Resistance of Edom (20:14-21)

The Death of Aaron (20:22-29)

The Destruction of Arad (21:1-3)

The Bronze Snake (21:4-9)

The Song of the Well and the Journey to Moab (21:10-20)

The Defeat of Sihon and Og (21:21-35)

Israel Returns to Moab (22:1)

Israel on the Plains of Moab, in Anticipation of Taking the Promised Land (22:2- 32:42)

Balak of Moab Hires Balaam to Curse Israel (22:2-41)

Balaam Blesses Israel in Seven Oracles (chs. 23-24)

The Baal of Peor and Israel’s Apostasy (ch. 25)

The Second Census (ch. 26)

Instructions for the New Generation (chs. 27-30)

The inheritance for women (27:1-11)

The successor to Moses (27:12-23)

Commands regarding offerings (28:1-15)

Commands regarding festivals (28:16- 29:40)

Commands regarding vows (ch. 30)

The War against Midian (ch. 31)

The Settlement of the Transjordan Tribes (ch. 32)

Appendixes Dealing with Various Matters (chs. 33-36)

The Stages of the Journey (ch. 33)

The Land of Inheritance (chs. 34-35)

The Inheritance for Women (ch. 36)

Introduction to Leviticus

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of Leviticus

Leviticus receives its name from the Septuagint (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT) and means “relating to the Levites.” Its Hebrew title, wayyiqra’, is the first word in the Hebrew text of the book and means “And he [i.e., the Lord] called.” Although Leviticus does not deal only with the special duties of the Levites, it is so named because it concerns mainly the service of worship at the tabernacle, which was conducted by the priests who were the sons of Aaron, assisted by many from the rest of the tribe of Levi. Exodus gave the directions for building the tabernacle, and now Leviticus gives the laws and regulations for worship there, including instructions on ceremonial cleanness, moral laws, holy days, the sabbath year and the Year of Jubilee. These laws were given, at least for the most part, during the year that Israel camped at Mount Sinai, when God directed Moses in organizing Israel’s worship, government and military forces. The book of Numbers continues the history with preparations for moving on from Sinai to Canaan.

Theological Themes
Leviticus is a manual of regulations enabling the holy King to set up his earthly throne among the people of his kingdom. It explains how they are to be his holy people and to worship him in a holy manner. Holiness in this sense means to be separated from sin and set apart exclusively to the Lord for his purpose and for his glory. So the key thought of the book is holiness (see notes on 11:44; Ex 3:5)- the holiness of God and his people (they must revere him in “holiness” ). In Leviticus spiritual holiness is symbolized by physical perfection. Therefore the book demands perfect animals for its many sacrifices (chs. 1-7) and requires priests without deformity (chs. 8-10). A woman’s hemorrhaging after giving birth (ch. 12); sores, burns or baldness (chs. 13-14); a man’s bodily discharge (15:1-18); specific activities during a woman’s monthly period (15:19-33)- all may be signs of blemish (a lack of perfection) and may symbolize human spiritual defects, which break spiritual wholeness. The person with visible skin disease must be banished from the camp, the place of God’s special presence, just as Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden. Such people can return to the camp (and therefore to God’s presence) when they are pronounced whole again by the examining priests. Before they can reenter the camp, however, they must offer the prescribed, perfect sacrifices (symbolizing the perfect, whole sacrifice of Christ).

After the covenant at Sinai, Israel was the earthly representation of God’s kingdom (the theocracy), and, as its King, the Lord established his administration over all of Israel’s life. Israel’s religious, communal and personal life was so regulated as to establish them as God’s holy people and to instruct them in holiness. Special attention was given to Israel’s religious ritual. The sacrifices were to be offered at an approved sanctuary, which would symbolize both God’s holiness and his compassion. They were to be controlled by the priests, who by care and instruction would preserve them in purity and carefully teach their meaning to the people. Each particular sacrifice was to have meaning for the people of Israel but would also have spiritual and symbolic import.

For more information on the meaning of sacrifice in general see the solemn ritual of the Day of Atonement (ch. 16; see note on 16:1-34). For the meaning of the blood of the offering see 17:11; Ge 9:4 and notes. For the emphasis on substitution see 16:21.

Some suppose that the OT sacrifices were remains of old agricultural offerings- a human desire to offer part of one’s possessions as a love gift to the deity. But the OT sacrifices were specifically prescribed by God and received their meaning from the Lord’s covenant relationship with Israel- whatever their superficial resemblances to pagan sacrifices may have been. They indeed include the idea of a gift, but this is accompanied by such other values as dedication, communion, propitiation (appeasing God’s judicial wrath against sin) and restitution. The various offerings have differing functions, the primary ones being atonement (see note on Ex 25:17) and worship (see chart, p. 151).

The subjects treated in Leviticus, as in any book of laws and regulations, cover several categories:

The Five Main Offerings (chs. 1-7)

The Burnt Offering (ch. 1)

The Grain Offering (ch. 2)

The Fellowship Offering (ch. 3)

The Sin Offering (4:1- 5:13)

The Guilt Offering (5:14- 6:7)

Additional Regulations for the Offerings (6:8- 7:38)

The Installation and Ministry of Aaron and His Sons (chs. 8-10)

The Ordination of Aaron and His Sons (ch. 8)

The Ministry of the Priests (ch. 9)

The Death of Nadab and Abihu and Attendant Regulations (ch. 10)

The Distinction Between Clean and Unclean (chs. 11-15)

Clean and Unclean Food (ch. 11)

Purification After Childbirth (ch. 12)

Regulations for Skin Diseases (13:1-46)

Regulations for Mildew (13:47-59)

Cleansing from Skin Diseases (14:1-32)

Cleansing from Mildew (14:33-57)

Discharges That Cause Uncleanness (ch. 15)

The Annual Day of Atonement (ch. 16)

Holy Living (chs. 17-26)

Eating Blood Prohibited (ch. 17)

Unlawful Sexual Relations (ch. 18)

Various Laws for Holy Living (ch. 19)

Punishments for Sin (ch. 20)

Regulations for Priests (21:1- 22:16)

Acceptable and Unacceptable Sacrifices (22:17-33)

The Annual Feasts (ch. 23)

Rules for Oil and Bread in the Tabernacle (24:1-9)

Punishment for Blasphemy (24:10-23)

The Sabbath and Jubilee Years (ch. 25)

Covenant Blessings and Curses (ch. 26)

Regulations for Offerings Vowed to the Lord (ch. 27)

Introduction to Exodus

Introduction to the Books of the Bible

The Book of Exodus

“Exodus” is a Latin word derived from Greek Exodos, the name given to the book by those who translated it into Greek. The word means “exit,” “departure” (see Lk 9:31; Heb 11:22). The name was retained by the Latin Vulgate, by the Jewish author Philo (a contemporary of Christ) and by the Syriac version. In Hebrew the book is named after its first two words, we’elleh shemoth (“These are the names of” ). The same phrase occurs in Ge 46:8, where it likewise introduces a list of the names of those Israelites “who went to Egypt with Jacob” (1:1). Thus Exodus was not intended to exist separately, but was thought of as a continuation of a narrative that began in Genesis and was completed in Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. The first five books of the Bible are together known as the Pentateuch (see Introduction to Genesis: Author and Date of Writing).

Author and Date of Writing
Several statements in Exodus indicate that Moses wrote certain sections of the book (see 17:14; 24:4; 34:27). In addition, Jos 8:31 refers to the command of Ex 20:25 as having been “written in the Book of the Law of Moses.” The NT also claims Mosaic authorship for various passages in Exodus (see, e.g., Mk 7:10; 12:26 and NIV text notes; see also Lk 2:22-23). Taken together, these references strongly suggest that Moses was largely responsible for writing the book of Exodus- a traditional view not convincingly challenged by the commonly held notion that the Pentateuch as a whole contains four underlying sources (see Introduction to Genesis: Author and Date of Writing).

According to 1Ki 6:1 (see note there), the exodus took place 480 years before “the fourth year of Solomon’s reign over Israel.” Since that year was c. 966 b.c., it has been traditionally held that the exodus occurred c. 1446. The “three hundred years” of Jdg 11:26 fits comfortably within this time span (see Introduction to Judges: Background). In addition, although Egyptian chronology relating to the 18th dynasty remains somewhat uncertain, some recent research tends to support the traditional view that two of this dynasty’s pharaohs, Thutmose III and his son Amunhotep II, were the pharaohs of the oppression and the exodus respectively (see notes on 2:15,23; 3:10).

On the other hand, the appearance of the name Rameses in 1:11 has led many to the conclusion that the 19th-dynasty pharaoh Seti I and his son Rameses II were the pharaohs of the oppression and the exodus respectively. Furthermore, archaeological evidence of the destruction of numerous Canaanite cities in the 13th century b.c. has been interpreted as proof that Joshua’s troops invaded the promised land in that century. These and similar lines of argument lead to a date for the exodus of c. 1290 (see Introduction to Joshua: Historical Setting).

The identity of the cities’ attackers, however, cannot be positively ascertained. The raids may have been initiated by later Israelite armies, or by Philistines or other outsiders. In addition, the archaeological evidence itself has become increasingly ambiguous, and recent evaluations have tended to redate some of it to the 18th dynasty. Also, the name Rameses in 1:11 could very well be the result of an editorial updating by someone who lived centuries after Moses- a procedure that probably accounts for the appearance of the same word in Ge 47:11 (see note there).

In short, there are no compelling reasons to modify in any substantial way the traditional 1446 b.c. date for the exodus of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage.

The Route of the Exodus
At least three routes of escape from Pithom and Rameses (1:11) have been proposed: (1) a northern route through the land of the Philistines (but see 13:17); (2) a middle route leading eastward across Sinai to Beersheba; and (3) a southern route along the west coast of Sinai to the southeastern extremities of the peninsula. The southern route seems most likely, since several of the sites in Israel’s desert itinerary have been tentatively identified along it. See map No. 2 at the end of the Study Bible. The exact place where Israel crossed the “Red Sea” is uncertain, however (see notes on 13:18; 14:2).

Themes and Theology
Exodus lays a foundational theology in which God reveals his name, his attributes, his redemption, his law and how he is to be worshiped. It also reports the appointment and work of Moses as the mediator of the Sinaitic covenant, describes the beginnings of the priesthood in Israel, defines the role of the prophet and relates how the ancient covenant relationship between God and his people (see note on Ge 17:2) came under a new administration (the covenant given at Mount Sinai).

Profound insights into the nature of God are found in chs. 3; 6; 33-34. The focus of these texts is on the fact and importance of his presence with his people (as signified by his name Yahweh- see notes on 3:14-15- and by his glory among them). But emphasis is also placed on his attributes of justice, truthfulness, mercy, faithfulness and holiness. Thus to know God’s “name” is to know him and to know his character (see 3:13-15; 6:3).

God is also the Lord of history. Neither the affliction of Israel nor the plagues in Egypt were outside his control. The pharaoh, the Egyptians and all Israel saw the power of God. There was no one like him, “majestic in holiness, awesome in glory, working wonders” (15:11; see note there).

It is reassuring to know that God remembers and is concerned about his people (see 2:24). What he had promised centuries earlier to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob he now begins to bring to fruition as Israel is freed from Egyptian bondage and sets out for the land of promise. The covenant at Sinai is but another step in God’s fulfillment of his promise to the patriarchs (3:15-17; 6:2-8; 19:3-8).

The Biblical message of salvation is likewise powerfully set forth in this book. The verb “redeem” is used, e.g., in 6:6; 15:13. But the heart of redemption theology is best seen in the Passover narrative of ch. 12, the sealing of the covenant in ch. 24, and the account of God’s gracious renewal of that covenant after Israel’s blatant unfaithfulness to it in their worship of the golden calf (see 34:1-14 and notes). The apostle Paul viewed the death of the Passover lamb as fulfilled in Christ (1Co 5:7). Indeed, John the Baptist called Jesus the “Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world” (Jn 1:29).

The foundation of Biblical ethics and morality is laid out first in the gracious character of God as revealed in the exodus itself and then in the Ten Commandments (20:1-17) and the ordinances of the Book of the Covenant (20:22- 23:33), which taught Israel how to apply in a practical way the principles of the commandments.

The book concludes with an elaborate discussion of the theology of worship. Though costly in time, effort and monetary value, the tabernacle, in meaning and function, points to the “chief end of man,” namely, “to glorify God and to enjoy him forever” (Westminster Shorter Catechism). By means of the tabernacle, the omnipotent, unchanging and transcendent God of the universe came to “dwell” or “tabernacle” with his people, thereby revealing his gracious nearness as well. God is not only mighty in Israel’s behalf; he is also present in the nation’s midst.

However, these theological elements do not merely sit side by side in the Exodus narrative. They receive their fullest and richest significance from the fact that they are embedded in the account of God’s raising up his servant Moses (1) to liberate his people from Egyptian bondage, (2) to inaugurate his earthly kingdom among them by bringing them into a special national covenant with him, and (3) to erect within Israel God’s royal tent. And this account of redemption from bondage leading to consecration in covenant and the pitching of God’s royal tent in the earth, all through the ministry of a chosen mediator, discloses God’s purpose in history- the purpose he would fulfill through Israel, and ultimately through Jesus Christ the supreme Mediator.


Prologue (chs. 1-2)

Israel Blessed and Oppressed (ch. 1)

A Deliverer Prepared (ch. 2)

Infant Moses spared (2:1-10)

Mature Moses’ escape from Egypt (2:11-25)

God’s Deliverance of Israel (chs. 3-18)

The Deliverer Called (ch. 3)

The Deliverer’s Objections and Disqualifications Overcome (ch. 4)

Unsuccessful Attempts to Deliver (5:1- 6:12)

Oppression made more harsh (5:1-21)

Promise of deliverance renewed (5:22- 6:12)

The Deliverers Identified (6:13-27)

Judgment of Plagues on Egypt (6:28- 11:10)

Deliverer’s commission renewed (6:28- 7:7)

Presenting the signs of divine authority (7:8-13)

First plague: water turned to blood (7:14-24)

Second plague: frogs (7:25- 8:15)

Third plague: gnats (8:16-19)

Fourth plague: flies (8:20-32)

Fifth plague: against livestock (9:1-7)

Sixth plague: boils (9:8-12)

Seventh plague: hail (9:13-35)

Eighth plague: locusts (10:1-20)

Ninth plague: darkness (10:21-29)

Tenth plague announced: death of the firstborn (ch. 11)

The Passover (12:1-28)

The Exodus from Egypt (12:29-51)

The Consecration of the Firstborn (13:1-16)

Crossing the “Red Sea” (13:17- 15:21)

Deliverance at the “Red Sea” (13:17- 14:31)

Song at the sea (15:1-21)

Journey to Sinai (15:22- 18:27)

The waters of Marah (15:22-27)

The manna and the quail (ch. 16)

The waters of Meribah (17:1-7)

The war with Amalek (17:8-16)

Basic administrative structure (ch. 18)

Covenant at Sinai (chs. 19-24)

The Covenant Proposed (ch. 19)

The Decalogue (20:1-17)

The Reaction of the People to God’s Fiery Presence (20:18-21)

The Book of the Covenant (20:22- 23:33)

Prologue (20:22-26)

Laws on slaves (21:1-11)

Laws on homicide (21:12-17)

Laws on bodily injuries (21:18-32)

Laws on property damage (21:33- 22:15)

Laws on society (22:16-31)

Laws on justice and neighborliness (23:1-9)

Laws on sacred seasons (23:10-19)

Epilogue (23:20-33)

Ratification of the Covenant (ch. 24)

God’s Royal Tent in Israel (chs. 25-40)

Instructions concerning the Royal Tent (chs. 25-31)

Collection of the materials (25:1-9)

Furnishings of the tent (25:10-40)

Ark and atonement cover (25:10-22)

Table of the bread of the Presence (25:23-30)

Gold lampstand (25:31-40)

The tent and its courtyard (26:1- 27:19)

Curtains and frames (ch. 26)

Altar of burnt offering (27:1-8)

Courtyard (27:9-19)

The tent’s personnel (27:20- 29:46)

Priesthood (27:20- 28:5)

Garments of the priests (28:6-43)

Ordination of the priests (ch. 29)

Remaining provisions concerning the tent (ch. 30)

Altar of incense (30:1-10)

Census tax (30:11-16)

Bronze basin (30:17-21)

Anointing oil and incense (30:22-38)

Appointment of craftsmen (31:1-11)

Observance of Sabbath rest (31:12-18)

Rebellion Threatens Withdrawal of God (chs. 32-34)

The golden calf (32:1-29)

Moses’ mediation (32:30-35)

Threatened separation and Moses’ prayer (ch. 33)

Renewal of the covenant (ch. 34)

God’s Royal Tent Set Up (chs. 35-40)

Summons to build (35:1-19)

Voluntary gifts (35:20-29)

Bezalel and his craftsmen (35:30- 36:7)

Progress of the work (36:8- 39:31)

Moses’ blessing (39:32-43)

Erection of God’s royal tent (40:1-33)

Dedication of God’s royal tent (40:34-38)

Exodus 25:6

“Oil for the light.”

— Exodus 25:6

My soul, how much thou needest this, for thy lamp will not long continue to burn without it. Thy snuff will smoke and become an offence if light be gone, and gone it will be if oil be absent. Thou hast no oil well springing up in thy human nature, and therefore thou must go to them that sell and buy for thyself, or like the foolish virgins, thou wilt have to cry, “My lamp is gone out.” Even the consecrated lamps could not give light without oil; though they shone in the tabernacle they needed to be fed, though no rough winds blew upon them they required to be trimmed, and thy need is equally as great. Under the most happy circumstances thou canst not give light for another hour unless fresh oil of grace be given thee.

It was not every oil that might be used in the Lord’s service; neither the petroleum which exudes so plentifully from the earth, nor the produce of fishes, nor that extracted from nuts would be accepted; one oil only was selected, and that the best olive oil. Pretended grace from natural goodness, fancied grace from priestly hands, or imaginary grace from outward ceremonies will never serve the true saint of God; he knows that the Lord would not be pleased with rivers of such oil. He goes to the olive-press of Gethsemane, and draws his supplies from him who was crushed therein. The oil of gospel grace is pure and free from lees and dregs, and hence the light which is fed thereon is clear and bright. Our churches are the Saviour’s golden candelabra, and if they are to be lights in this dark world, they must have much holy oil. Let us pray for ourselves, our ministers, and our churches, that they may never lack oil for the light. Truth, holiness, joy, knowledge, love, these are all beams of the sacred light, but we cannot give them forth unless in private we receive oil from God the Holy Ghost.

Psalm 60

Psa 60:1 To the chief musician. On the Lily of Testimony. A secret treasure of David, to teach; when he struggled with Aram-naharaim, and with Aram-zobah; when Joab returned, and struck twelve thousand of Edom in the Valley of Salt. O God! You cast us off; You broke us; You who were angry; take us back.
Psa 60:2 You made the earth tremble; You tore it; heal its breaks, for it is shaking.
Psa 60:3 You have shown Your people hardship; You made us drink the wine of trembling.
Psa 60:4 You have given a banner to those who fear You, to lift it up because of the truth. Selah.
Psa 60:5 Save with Your right hand and answer me, that Your beloved may be delivered.
Psa 60:6 God has spoken in His holiness; I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem, and measure out the valley of Succoth.
Psa 60:7 Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine; Ephraim is the strength of My head; Judah is My lawgiver;
Psa 60:8 Moab is My washpot; over Edom I will cast out My shoe; Philistia, shout in triumph.
Psa 60:9 Who will bring me into the strong city? Who will lead me into Edom?
Psa 60:10 Have not You, O God, cast us aside? And will You not go forth with our armies, O God?
Psa 60:11 Give us help against our oppressor, for vain is the deliverance of man.
Psa 60:12 Through God we shall do mighty things; for He shall tread on our oppressors.

Psalm 59

Psa 59:1 To the chief musician. Do not destroy. A secret treasure of David, when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him. Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; set me on high from the ones who rise up against me.
Psa 59:2 Deliver me from the workers of evil, and save me from bloody men.
Psa 59:3 For lo, they lie in wait for my soul, mighty ones gather against me; not for my transgression, and not for my sin, O Jehovah.
Psa 59:4 Without my fault they run and prepare themselves; awaken to help me, and look on me.
Psa 59:5 And You, O Jehovah God of Hosts, the God of Israel: Awake to visit all the nations; be not merciful to any plotting evil. Selah.
Psa 59:6 They return at evening; they howl like a dog, and go around the city.
Psa 59:7 Behold, they bellow with their mouth; swords are in their lips; for they say, Who hears?
Psa 59:8 But You, O Jehovah, shall laugh at them; you shall mock at all the nations.
Psa 59:9 O my Strength, let me look to You; for God is my strong tower.
Psa 59:10 The God of my mercy shall go before me; God shall let me see my desire on my enemies.
Psa 59:11 Do not kill them, lest my people forget; scatter them by Your power and bring them down, O Jehovah our shield.
Psa 59:12 For the sin of their mouth is the word of their lips, even let them be captured in their pride, and for cursing and the lying which they utter.
Psa 59:13 Consume them in Your anger; consume, so that they may not be; and they shall know that God is ruling in Jacob, to the ends of the earth. Selah.
Psa 59:14 Yes, they shall return at evening; let them howl like the dog and go around the city;
Psa 59:15 let them wander up and down for food, and growl if they are not satisfied.
Psa 59:16 But I will sing of Your power; yes, I will sing of Your mercy in the morning. For You have been my strong tower, and my hiding place in the day of my trouble.
Psa 59:17 To You, O my strength, I will sing; for God is my strong tower, the God of my mercy.

Psalm 58

Psa 58:1 To the chief musician. Do not destroy. A secret treasure of David. Will you indeed speak righteousness in silence? Do you judge uprightly, O sons of men?
Psa 58:2 Yes, in heart you work the evil, you weigh the violence of your hands in the land.
Psa 58:3 The wicked are estranged from the womb; they go astray from the belly, speaking lies.
Psa 58:4 Their poison is like the poison of a snake; like the deaf adder he stops his ear,
Psa 58:5 which will not hear the charmer’s voice, skillful charmer of charms.
Psa 58:6 O God, break their teeth in their mouth; break out the big teeth of the young lions, O Jehovah.
Psa 58:7 Let them melt away like waters; they flow off to them; he treads his arrows; let them be as though they were cut off;
Psa 58:8 Let them be as a snail that goes into melting, a miscarriage of a woman; they do not see the sun.
Psa 58:9 Before your pots can discern the thorns, whether green or glowing, He shall sweep it away.
Psa 58:10 The righteous shall rejoice when he sees vengeance; he shall wash his feet in the blood of the wicked.
Psa 58:11 And man will say, Truly, a fruit is to the righteous; truly, there is a God judging in the earth.

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